Chyle leakage in port incision after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: case report
© Ma et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 23 June 2010
Accepted: 15 October 2010
Published: 15 October 2010
A 26-year-old Asian male was found to have chyle leakage from the port incision after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for excision of pulmonary bullae. The diagnosis was confirmed by oral intake of Sudan black and by lymphoscintigraphy. The leakage resolved after 5 days of restricted oral intake and total parenteral nutrition. No leakage recurred after return of oral intake. Possible explanations for the port incision chyle leakage are obstruction of the thoracic duct, which induced retrograde drainage of the lymphoid fluid, or an aberrant collateral branch of the thoracic duct in the chest wall.
Chylous effusion is not a rare complication of thoracic surgery. Cerfolio et al.  reported that 47 of 11351 patients who received thoracic operations experienced chylothorax complications. In these 47 cases, 27 had undergone esophageal operations, 13 lung operations, 6 mediastinal operations, and 1 underwent surgery of the thoracic aorta due to an aneurysm. In China, Zhao et al.  reported that of 4084 patients who had undergone resections due to lung cancer, 12 developed chylothorax complications. In addition, the authors reported that of 4479 cases of resection due to esophageal cancer, 52 patients developed chylothorax complications. Thus, the incidence of postoperative chylothorax in patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer was 0.29%, and that of esophageal cancer was 1.16%. Chylothorax causes serious clinical consequences including cachexia and immunodeficiency . Chyle leakage in port incisions has rarely been reported. Chyle leakage can be confirmed by qualitative testing for the presence of chyle, the Sudan black test, and by dynamic lymphoscintigraphy.
Because the leakage persisted, 2 weeks after surgery debridement of the incision was performed. Biopsy of the tissue at the incision was performed, and the incision was carefully sutured. The biopsy showed striated muscle. Despite the surgical treatment, the leakage continued. Oral intake was restricted and total parenteral nutrition was administered (20 d after the first operation), and the leakage ceased after 5 days. The therapy was continued for another 3 days, after which oral intake was resumed. The leakage did not reappear.
Although there have been many reports of postoperative chylothorax after thoracic surgery, there have been no reports on chyle leakage from chest wall incisions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chyle leakage from a chest wall incision. The diagnosis of chyle leakage was confirmed by qualitative testing for chyle and the Sudan black test.
The normal flow rate in the thoracic duct is 1500-2000 ml/d. In our case, the quantity of the leakage was 50 ml/d while the patient was receiving a normal diet. We assume that an abnormal duct in the chest wall which drained chyle was injured in the VATS port placement. Injury to this abnormal duct might have resulted in retrograde drainage of chyle due to an obstruction in the thoracic duct, or because of an aberrant collateral branch of the thoracic duct in the chest wall.
It has been reported that when the thoracic duct or vena cava is obstructed, abnormal tracer accumulation can be detected by lymphangiography in the intercostal, pulmonary, and pleural lymphatic vessels . Moreover, another study reported that the pulmonary lymph nodes can be detected even if the thoracic duct does not undergo any pathological changes . At present, lymphoscintigraphy is considered the best noninvasive method of examination of the lymphatic system. When Tc-99 m sulfur colloid is used as the tracer, the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes are clearly exhibited . Because Tc-99 m sulfur colloid is not available in our hospital, we used Tc-99 m sodium phytate. Only the inguinal lymph nodes and abnormal accumulation of the tracer in the left chest were revealed. The thoracic duct and other lymphatic vessels were not exhibited with this tracer; thus, whether there was blockage of thoracic duct or the existence of an aberrant collateral branch of the thoracic duct remained undetermined.
This report presented a rare and previously unreported occurrence of chyle leakage. Lymphoscintigraphy would be the appropriate choice for diagnosis and precise localization of leakage in patients with postoperative chylothorax, spontaneous chylothorax, or other chyle leakage.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Cerfolio RJ, Allen MS, Deschamps C, Trastek VF, Pairolero PC: Postoperative chylothorax. J Thorac Cardivasc Surg. 1996, 112: 1361-1365. 10.1016/S0022-5223(96)70152-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Zhang DC, Wang LJ: Clinical features of postoperative chylothorax for lung cancer and esophageal cancer. Chin J Surg. 2003, 41: 47-49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Talwar A, Lee HJ: A contemporary review of chylothorax. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2008, 50: 343-351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jose Restrepo, Vicente Caride: Lymphoscintigraphy and Radionuclide Venography in Chylothorax. Clin Nucl Med. 2004, 29: 440-441. 10.1097/01.rlu.0000129125.05486.c5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clark RA, Colley DP: Pulmonary lymphatics visualized during pedal lymphangiography. Radiology. 1980, 136: 29-32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pui MH, Yueh TC: Lymphoscintigraphy in chyluria, chyloperitoneum and chylothorax. J Nuc Med. 1998, 39: 1292-12966.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.