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Table 2 Independent risk factors for increased one-year mortality

From: Intermediate and high peri-operative cardiac enzyme release following isolated coronary artery bypass surgery are independently associated with higher one-year mortality

  Hazard Ratio 95% Confidence Intervals p Value
CE release >6 times the ULR 5.0 4.5 to 5.4 <0.001
Ejection fraction <30% 3.1 2.7 to 3.5 <0.001
Age at operation * 1.06 1.03 to 1.08 <0.001
Renal dysfunction 2.6 2.0 to 3.2 <0.001
Peripheral vascular disease 2.1 1.7 to 2.5 0.002
CE release 3 to 6 times the ULR 2.1 1.6 to 2.6 0.002
Prior cardiac surgery 2.9 2.2 to 3.7 0.006
Emergent procedure 2.8 2.0 to 3.6 0.007
Female sex 1.5 1.1 to 1.9 0.041
  1. CE, Cardiac enzyme; ULR, Upper limit of reference range.
  2. * per unit increase.