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Table 5 Hazard Ratios for death at any time after registration for CABG for treated patients relative to untreated patients and for post-operative death for patients who had surgery within target times relative to those who had surgery after target times (figures in brackets are 95-percent confidence interval)

From: Survival benefit of coronary-artery bypass grafting accounted for deaths in those who remained untreated

  Semi-urgent group Non-urgent group
Overall survival, time-dependent treatment effect*   
No. of deaths/no. of patients   
   Treated patients 517/5,792 95/1,524
   Untreated patients 152/541 69/363
Model I, Treatment indicator   
   Treated vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.53 (0.43–0.65) 0.42 (0.30–0.59)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.54 (0.44–0.66) 0.45 (0.32–0.63)
Model II, Treatment by target time   
   Early Surgery vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.47 (0.37–0.59) 0.35 (0.23–0.55)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.45 (0.36–0.58) 0.36 (0.23–0.56)
   Late Surgery vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.58 (0.47–0.73) 0.47 (0.32–0.68)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.61 (0.49–0.76) 0.51 (0.35–0.74)
Model III, Treatment by target time and admission type   
   Early Surgery vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.47 (0.37–0.60) 0.32 (0.20–0.51)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.45 (0.36–0.58) 0.33 (0.20–0.53)
   Late Surgery vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.58 (0.46–0.73) 0.46 (0.32–0.67)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.61 (0.48–0.76) 0.51 (0.35–0.74)
   Unplanned Emergency vs Untreated   
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.51 (0.31–0.84) 0.80 (0.37–1.76)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.52 (0.32–0.87) 0.73 (0.33–1.63)
Long-term post-operative survival   
No. of deaths/follow-up yrs   
   Early Surgery 153/8,409 31/2,121
   Late Surgery 303/13,883 64/3,648
Unadjusted hazard ratio 0.85 (0.70–1.03) 0.84 (0.55–1.29)
Adjusted hazard ratio 0.79 (0.65–0.96) 0.86 (0.55–1.33)
  1. *Among 8,220 patients who were registered to undergo CABG.
  2. †Within five years after discharge date among 7,153 patients who underwent surgery and did not die in hospital, after removal of 66 patients with invalid discharge dates
  3. Target Time = Recommended time