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Table 1 Angiographic grading of regurgitant severity of aortic and mitral valve [1].

From: Methods of estimation of mitral valve regurgitation for the cardiac surgeon

Grade Aortic regurgitation Mitral regurgitation
1+ Contrast refluxes from the aortic root into the left ventricle but clears on each beat Contrast refluxes into the left atrium but clears on each beat
2+ Contrast refluxes into the left ventricle with a gradually increasing density of contrast in the left ventricle that never equals contrast intensity in the aortic root Left atrial contrast density gradually increases but never equals left ventricle density
3+ Contrast refluxes into the left ventricle with a gradually increasing density such that left ventricle and aortic root density are equal after several beats The density of contrast in the atrium and ventricle equalize after several beats
4+ Contrast fills the left ventricle resulting in an equivalent radiographic density in the left ventricle and aortic root on the first beat The left atrium becomes as dense as the left ventricle on the first beat and contrast is seen refluxing into the pulmonary veins
  1. The points of obscureness are in bold or with questionmarks.