Recommendation for the management of chylothorax. Possibly treatable causes for chylothorax should be ruled out or treated before symptomatic therapy is started. Before more invasive and long-lasting therapies are started, one attempt to treat chylothorax with MCT-diet should be done (efficacy to treat chylothorax is 70% within acceptable treatment period). Abbr.: MCT = fatty acid-free MCT-enriched diet; TPN = total parenteral nutrition.