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Table 1 Baseline and peroperative characteristics.

From: Insulin resistance, adiponectin and adverse outcomes following elective cardiac surgery: a prospective follow-up study

  Total sample HOMA Adiponectin
Clinical features N = 836 r p -value r p -value
Male gender 607 (73) 0.14 < 0.01 -0.32 < 0.01
Age (years) 68 [59-75] -0.06 0.08 0.15 < 0.01
BMI (kg/(m)2) 27 [24-30] 0.50 < 0.01 -0.38 < 0.01
Current smoker 147 (18) < 0.01 0.99 -0.06 0.09
Hypertension 465 (56) 0.05 0.18 -0.02 0.50
EF < 50% 177 (21) < 0.01 0.87 -0.02 0.48
MI 192 (23) 0.12 < 0.01 -0.15 < 0.01
Stroke 79 (9) 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.33
EuroSCORE 4.4 [2.2-7.8] -0.15 < 0.01 0.29 < 0.01
Charlson Index   0.05 0.18 0.07 0.05
Low 285 (34)     
Medium 432 (52)     
High 119 (14)     
Paraclinic      
Creatinine (mmol/liter) 81 [68-98] 0.03 0.33 < 0.01 0.99
UACR (mg/mmol) 0.7 [0.1-1.8] -0.05 0.13 0.16 < 0.01
Microalbuminuria 146 (18) -0.08 0.02 0.20 < 0.01
eGFR (ml/minute) 81 [61-105] 0.23 < 0.01 -0.33 < 0.01
Glucose (mmol/liter) 5.4 [5.1-5.8] 0.52 < 0.01 -0.19 < 0.01
Fructosamine (μmol/liter) 230 [213-246] 0.02 0.61 0.21 < 0.01
Insulin (pmol/liter) 44 [30-71] 0.99 < 0.01 -0.42 < 0.01
HOMA 1.6 [1.0-2.6]    -0.42 < 0.01
Adiponectin (mg/liter) 8.0 [5.6-11.7] -0.42 < 0.01   
Medicine      
RAS inhibitors* 297 (36) 0.08 0.02 -0.01 0.62
Beta blockers 521 (62) 0.14 < 0.01 -0.22 < 0.01
Statins 526 (63) 0.16 < 0.01 -0.23 < 0.01
Antiplatelets 337 (40) 0.08 0.02 -0.06 0.07
Procedure      
Bypass alone 326 (39) 0.16 < 0.01 -0.34 < 0.01
Valve alone 258 (31) -0.12 < 0.01 0.22 < 0.01
Bypass & Valve 131 (16) 0.01 0.81 0.08 0.02
Others 121 (14) -0.07 0.03 0.10 < 0.01
Procedure related      
ECC (minutes) 91 [68-124] -0.04 0.19 0.14 < 0.01
CCT (minutes) 57 [40-79] -0.08 0.01 0.20 < 0.01
  1. Data are presented as medians [interquartile range] or absolute numbers (%)
  2. r is the correlation coefficient
  3. * Includes angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists
  4. AF - Atrial fibrillation or flutter; BMI - Body mass index; CCT - Cross clamp time; ECC - Extra corporal circulation; eGFR - Estimated glomerular filtration rate; EF - Ejection fraction; HOMA - Homeostasis model assessment; Kg - Kilogram; M - Meter; MI - Myocardial infarction; UACR - Urinary albumin creatinine ratio; RAS - Renin angiotensin system