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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of risk factors for late mortality†.

From: Preoperative ejection fraction as a predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison with a matched general population

Risk factor HR late mortality Univariate analysis P value HR late mortality Multivariate analysis P value
EF 35% -50% 1.866 (1.614 -2.157) < .0001 1.562 (1.339 -1.822) < .0001
EF < 35% 2.859 (2.231-3.665) < .0001 1.051 (0.924 -1.196) < .0001
Age (y)* 1.094 (1.086 -1.103) < .0001 1.067 (1.053 -1.081) < .0001
Male sex 0.835 (0.726 -0.961) .012 1.629 (1.346 -1.97) < .0001
NYHA class 1.201 (1.094 -1.318) < .0001 1.501 (1.267 -1.779) < .0001
Angina class 1.002 (0.951-1.055) .95   
Hypertension 1.223 (1.079 -1386) .002 1.137 (0.971 -1.33) .11
COPD 1.778 (1.523 -2.077) < .0001 1.473 (1.211 -1.792) < .0001
Diabetes 1.733 (1.512 -1.985) < .0001 1.526 (1.287 -1.809) < .0001
Preoperative CrCl 0.965 (0962 -0.968) < .0001 0.986 (0.981 -0.992) < .0001
PVD 2.307 (1.978 -2.690) < .0001 1.699 (1.397 -2.066) < .0001
Preoperative Hb 0.743 (0.711 -0.777) < .0001 0.867 (0.816 -0.922) < .0001
Prior cardiac surgery 1.536 (1.248 -1.891) < .0001 1.143 (0.851-1.536) .374
Emergency 1.268 (0.957 -1.681) .099   
No. of anastomoses 1.089 (1.032 -1.148) .002   
Use of IMA 0.544 (0.465 -0.637) < .0001   
Off-pump 0.76 (0.58 -0.996) .046   
Perioperative MI 1.801 (1.331-2.437) < .0001   
Re-exploration 1.673 (1.344 -2.082) < .0001   
IABP 1.903 (1.364 -2.655) < .0001   
  1. HR = Hazard ratio, EF = ejection fraction, NYHA = New York Heart Association, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CrCl = creatinine clearance, PVD = peripheral vascular disease, Hb = hemoglobin, IMA = internal mammary artery, MI = myocardial infarction, IABP = intra-aortic balloon pump support.
  2. † Only preoperative variables which are significant in the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate analysis
  3. *Entered as a continuous variable.