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Table 1 Preoperative patient characteristics

From: Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

Patients No. of patients
Male/female ratio 26:12
Age (y) 71 ± 10
Emergency cases 18 (47%)
Comorbidity  
   Hypertension 32 (84%)
   History of smoking 17 (45%)
   Hyperlipidemia 8 (21%)
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 7 (18%)
   Coronary artery disease 3 (8%)
   Peripheral vascular disease 0 (0%)
   Creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL 3 (8%)
   Previous transient ischemic attack or stroke 2 (5%)
   Marfan syndrome 1 (3%)
   Diabetes mellitus 2 (5%)
Previous operations  
   Coronary artery bypass 1 (3%)
   Aortic valve procedure 1 (3%)
   Ascending aortic repair 3 (8%)
   Descending thoracic aortic repair 0 (0%)
   Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 5 (13%)
Etiology of aortic disease  
   Degenerative aneurysm 12 (32%)
   Ruptured aneurysm 6 (16%)
   Acute type A dissection 7 (18%)
   Acute type B dissection 5 (13%)
   Chronic type B dissection 8 (21%)