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Table 1 Comparisons between rigid and flexible pericardial endoscopes

From: The effectiveness of rigid pericardial endoscopy for minimally invasive minor surgeries: cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation

  Rigid endoscope Flexible endoscope
Device size Smaller Larger
Manipulation Intuitive Fluoroscopy dependent
View Wider Position dependent
Orientation Easier Fluoroscopy dependent
Lateral and Posterior approach Easily performed by body position change Difficult but performed with fluoroscopy
Apical approach Risk of unintentional extraction Easily controlled with fluoroscopy
Motional artifact Fixed by forceps Reduced by forceps
  1. Compared with flexible pericardial endoscopes, the smaller rigid pericardial endoscopes are more advantageous. These devices are more intuitively manipulated, offer a clearer and wider field of view, are easier to establish orientation, offer easier access to the posterior wall of the heart including the pulmonary veins, and are better at controlling motion artifacts. The use of less air in the pericardial space through stretching the pericardium with rigid endoscopes reduces the risk of complications.