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Table 1 The summery of the causes of the string-sign and the applied investigations for confirmation of the competitive flow

From: Various clinical scenarios leading to development of the string sign of the internal thoracic artery after coronary bypass surgery: the role of competitive flow, a case series

Cases CABG QCA stenosis % in the LAD proximally to the LIMA anastomosis Cause of the competitive flow Proof of the competitive flow
1 LIMA-LAD
SVGA-RCA
48% Non- significant LAD lesion + patent LIMA side branch angiogram
2 LIMA-LAD
RIMA-RCA
53% Non-significant LAD lesion angiogram +
FFR = 0.83
3 LIMA-LAD
SVGA-LCx
57% Non-significant LAD lesion angiogram +
FFR = 0.89
4 1st: LIMA-LAD, SVGA-1st OM, SVGA-RCA
2nd: rad-LAD, rad-LAD,
SVGA-RCA
100% The concomitant radial graft to the LAD angiogram
5 LIMA-LAD, SVGA-1st diag., SVGA-1st OM, SVGA-RCA 31% (87% before the operation) Regression of the LAD lesion angiogram
6 LIMA-diag-LAD, rad-LCx, rad-RCA 62% (83% before the operation) Non-significant lesion on the diagonal branch angiogram