3-D reconstruction of the thoracic cage. We could see that there was no bone regeneration in the flank group, which is shown by the red arrow. In the PDO cage/DBMs group there was no new bone regeneration not only in the junction of two scaffolds but also in the junction between the rib and scaffold, which is shown as the green arrow. The radian of the reconstructed rib, however, was similar to the primary rib. In the PDO cage/DBMS/BMSCs, there was bone union in both the junctions which are shown with the blue arrow.