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Table 1 Different heart conditions and general characteristics (listed in decreasing order of occurrence)

From: Potential biomarkers for predicting outcomes in CABG cardiothoracic surgeries

Condition Length of operation Mean age Gender differences Mortality rate Treatment Prevalence
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) 4-6 hours [2, 3] Usually >60 [3] Majority occurs in males [4] 1.53 deaths per 1000 admissions [5] Vein or artery used to create detour around blocked area in artery About 427,000 operations performed each year [6]
0.14%
Balloon angioplasty (Aortic coarctation) 30 minutes – 3 hours [7] Congenital [2] About 2:1 ratio, men to women [2] 1 in 1000 procedures [8] Balloon placed inside aorta, then expanded [3] Nearly one million performed per year in the US [9] (.003%)
Aortic Regurgitation 2-5 hours [2] Prevalence increases with age, but severe AR is uncommon before 70 [10] 13% of men versus 8.5% of women [10] <10% per year, once symptomatic [11] Replacement of aortic valve [12] Less than 1% of the general population [13]
Death from any cause, once symptomatic: 4.7%
Death from aortic valve surgery: 14.6% [11]
Aortic Stenosis 2-5 hours [2] Can develop around 30 but mostly in patients 65 or older [14] 3 times more common in men than women [14] Asymptomatic: <1% per year Replacement of aortic valve [12] Less than 200,000 people in US population [14]: .064%
Symptomatic: 25% 1 year from onset of symptoms and 50% at 2 years[14]
Atrial Septal Defect 2-3 hours [12] Congenital [15] 3 times more common in women than in men [16] Surgical repair in the first 2 decades of life is associated with a mortality rate near zero. [13] Surgical closure of shunt 1.6 per 1000 live births [16] . 4,131,019 births in the US in 2009; [17, 18]
Female-to-male ratio: 2–1 [12] About .05% of births in the US.
Tetralogy of Fallot 2-3 hours [19] Congenital [20] Unrelated [20] <10% with surgery; without surgery, death usually occurs by age 20. [11] Widen pulmonary tract and repair VSD 5 out of every 10,000 babies [21] = .05% of all babies
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome   Congenital; evidence of genetic inheritance [22] 67% males[22] Lethal without surgery. Stage 1 survival: 68-77%. [23] Parts of left side of heart do not develop fully .16-.36 per 1000 live births [22]
(3 surgeries in total) .026% of all live births
Heart Transplant Anywhere from 4–12 hours, depending on the person [24] 48+/−11.8 years [25] 72.4% male [2628] Survival rate at 12 months: 88% for men, 77.2% for women [24] Heart is replaced by donor heart 2163 performed in 2008 [24]
0.00%
Aortic Graft (Aortic coarctation)   Congenital [29]. Usually performed on older patients, for whom surgery poses significant risk [2628] Greater in men than women [30] success rate >95% [2628] Aorta replaced with synthetic aorta or patient’s artery 37, 102 procedures from 1986 to 2004 [31]
About 1952 per year; 6.26e-4%
Anastomosis Less than 30 minutes [31] Congenital [2]   Mortality rate highest in neonates <1 week. Mortality rate during, or within one month, of surgery was 24% (50/208) and late mortality rate was 10% (21/208). [32] Free ends of aorta are reconnected 83 patients between 1999 and 2000 [31]
       2.7e-5% of the general US population