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Table 2 Various inflammatory biomarkers (Gene) and brief descriptions

From: Potential biomarkers for predicting outcomes in CABG cardiothoracic surgeries

Gene biomarker Description Increased/Decreased/Remained constant after surgery
S-TnT Part of the troponin complex Increased to 1.26 μg/L1 day after surgery; decreased to .52 μg/L 4 days after surgery [33]
NSE Enzyme; levels increase after brain damage Rises to 20.2 ng/mL postoperatively but returns to normal levels 48 h postop [44]
HSP 70 Helps with protein folding and transport Increased to about 2000 pg/mL during surgery but decreased to 0 by 19 hrs postop [45]
TLRs Signaling receptors for HSPs Decreased during operation but increased postop [45]
TNF-α Quantity correlated to the quantity of HSP70 Increased in both MUF and non-MUF groups during surgery; normalized 24 h postop [40]
IL-1ra Inflammatory cytokine Clear rise in both MUF and non-MUF groups. Reached peak 6 hrs postop in both groups but returned to baseline levels 12 hrs postop in MUF group, while staying at a higher level in the non-MUF group [40]
IL-8 Neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor Levels did not change much in group with SIRS but increased to about 46 pg/mL in the group with MODS and continued to decrease after [46]
IL-18 Induce chemokines. Involved in inflammatory response following extracorporeal circulation Remained constant in group with SIRS but increased to 300 pg/mL 1 day postop and remained about that level in group with MODS [46]
IL-1β Biologically inactive precursor molecule In the MUF group, IL-1β rose to max levels post-op. Fell significantly post-op and remained at these levels. IL-1β levels remained constant [40]
IL-6 Quantity correlated to the quantity of HSP70 Levels rose after surgery to about 100 pg/mL and remained through days 1 and 2 after surgery [47]