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Table 3 Various inflammatory biomarkers (Serum) and brief descriptions

From: Potential biomarkers for predicting outcomes in CABG cardiothoracic surgeries

Serum biomarker Description Increased/Decreased/Remained constant after surgery
S-CKMB Rise in amount in blood indicates that muscle damage has occurred Increased to 40 μg/L1 day after surgery; decreased to 3 μg/L 4 days after surgery [33]
CD11b/CD18 Adhesion protein No significant difference between SNP/non-SNP patients[32]; Expression of CD11b increased in group with heparin coating [37]
HLA-DR Major histocompatibility complex Significantly lower morning after operation [37]
CD62L L-selectin Increased during surgery but normalized the morning after [37]
Monocytes Activation triggers production of cytokines Decreased to 448 × 106 cells/L during surgery; increased to 1889 × 106 cells/L the next morning [37]
C3a desArg Mediates inflammatory reactions Increased in noncoated group during surgery; levels decreased the morning after surgery [37]
Granulocytes A type of white blood cells categorized by the presence of granules Reduction of circulating granulocytes noted in both groups after surgery; increased the morning after [37]
ATIII Inactivates thrombin Levels fell significantly in groups with and without MUF filtration. Reached baseline values 12 h postop.[40]
F1 + 2 Prothrombin fragment Rose significantly in both MUF and non-MUF groups. Fell to baseline values 6 h postop. [40]
CXC /CC-chemokine receptors Act mainly on neutrophils and lymphocytes Postoperative expression of CXCR2 but not CXCR1 was significantly lower in patients with cyanotic vs. noncyanotic heart lesions [56, 57]
GCP-1 Granulocyte chemotactic protein Levels remained unchanged during study period [56]
ENA-78 Epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide Decreased from 908 pg/mL to 729 pg/mL during surgery and remained at low levels 3 h after surgery (376 pg/mL) [56]
MPO Marker of primary neutrophil granules Increased from 11.3 ng/mL before surgery to 45.4 ng/mL during surgery and remained at that level 3 hrs after surgery [56]
PCT Hormone produced by the thyroid Increased to 17 ng/mL 1 day postop and decreased throughout the next 3 days [46]
Pre-albumin Anti-acute phase protein synthesized in liver Significantly lower during operation in cold priming group; levels were almost normalized 24 hrs after surgery [35]
HSCRP Highly sensitive C-reactive protein Levels rose 30 fold by 24 hrs post-op in cold priming group and 18 fold by 24 hrs post-op in the warm priming group [35]
α-1 antitrypsin Protease inhibitor: inhibits enzymes that bind peptides together Decreased by half during surgery then increased 24 hrs postop in cold priming group; decreased by half during surgery in the warm priming group also, but increased 3 fold 24 hrs postop [35]