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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (demographic and presentation) of coronary artery bypass patients according to neutrophil lymphocyte ratios (NLR) and surgical approach (MICS vs. Sternotomy CABG)

From: Elevated preoperative neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of increased long-term survival in minimal invasive coronary artery bypass surgery compared to sternotomy

Variables NLR <2.3 (N = 371) p Value 2.3 ≤ NLR ≤ 3.4 (N = 375) p Value NLR >3.4 (N = 380) p Value
  Sternotomy CABG MICS   Sternotomy CABG MICS   Sternotomy CABG MICS  
n 242 129   245 130   243 137  
Age (years) 62.5 ± 10.2 60.7 ± 10.9 0.12 64.3 ± 11.0 62.6 ± 10.7 0.14 67.5 ± 11.0 65.6 ± 10.7 0.10
Male 174 (71.9%) 90 (69.8%) 0.67 172 (70.5%) 93 (71.0%) 0.92 178 (73.3%) 100 (73.0%) 0.96
Race (Caucasian) 200 (82.6%) 106 (82.2%) 0.09 218 (89.3%) 123 (93.9%) 0.14 227 (93.4%) 128 (93.4%) 1.00
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 29.1 ± 5.09 29.4 ± 5.42 0.65 30.0 ± 5.70 29.9 ± 6.22 0.95 28.8 ± 5.50 28.7 ± 5.71 0.81
Death 21 (8.7%) 9 (7.0%) 0.57 32 (13.1%) 17 (13.0%) 0.97 57 (23.5%) 18 (13.1%) 0.02
Family history of CAD 101 (41.7%) 63 (48.8%) 0.19 79 (32.4%) 45 (34.4%) 0.7 89 (36.6%) 41 (29.9%) 0.19
Smoking 149 (62.9%) 65 (50.4%) 0.02 141 (59.7%) 72 (55.4%) 0.42 134 (55.6%) 69 (50.4%) 0.33
Hypertension 172 (71.1%) 98 (76.6%) 0.26 180 (74.1%) 93 (71.0%) 0.52 181 (74.5%) 113 (83.1%) 0.05
Diabetes mellitus 94 (38.8%) 33 (25.6%) 0.01 73 (29.9%) 33 (25.2%) 0.33 96 (39.5%) 47 (34.3%) 0.32
Peripheral arterial disease 29 (12.0%) 13 (10.1%) 0.58 36 (14.8%) 7 (5.3%) 0.006 39 (16.0%) 14 (10.2%) 0.12
Renal failure on dialysis 3 (1.2%) 1 (0.8%) 0.68 3 (1.2%) 5 (3.8%) 0.1 8 (3.3%) 9 (6.6%) 0.14
Myocardial infarction 134 (55.4%) 51 (39.5%) 0.004 132 (54.1%) 52 (39.7%) 0.008 130 (53.5%) 38 (27.7%) <0.001
History of PCI 71 (29.3%) 23 (17.8%) 0.02 66 (27.0%) 31 (23.7%) 0.48 58 (23.9%) 23 (16.8%) 0.11
Prior CABG 7 (2.9%) 2 (1.6%) 0.51 7 (2.9%) 1 (0.8%) 0.27 9 (3.7%) 2 (1.5%) 0.34
Prior heart failure 37 (15.3%) 7 (5.4%) 0.005 41 (16.8%) 9 (6.9%) 0.007 45 (18.5%) 11 (8.0%) 0.01
Prior cerebrovascular event 31 (12.8%) 8 (6.2%) 0.048 39 (16.0%) 11 (8.4%) 0.04 50 (20.6%) 12 (8.8%) 0.003
C0PD 30 (12.4%) 10 (7.9%) 0.18 34 (13.9%) 16 (12.2%) 0.64 34 (14.0%) 16 (11.7%) 0.52
Preoperative CCS          
none 0 (0%) 1 (0.8%) 0.14 2 (0.8%) 0 (0%) 0.02 2 (0.8%) 0 (0%) <0.001
Class I 42 (17.6%) 24 (18.6%)   34 (13.9%) 32 (24.4%)   41 (17.2%) 28 (20.6%)  
Class II 61 (25.5%) 45 (34.9%)   74 (30.3%) 47 (35.9%)   46 (19.3%) 49 (36.0%)  
Class III 68 (28.5%) 33 (25.6%)   75 (30.7%) 29 (22.1%)   83 (34.9%) 45 (33.1%)  
Class IV 68 (28.5%) 26 (20.2%)   59 (24.2%) 23 (17.6%)   66 (27.7%) 14 (10.3%)  
NYHA          
Class I 22 (17.9%) 21 (19.4%) 0.21 25 (29.2%) 25 (24.0%) 0.31 30 (23.8%) 22 (21.2%) 0.03
Class II 33 (26.8%) 40 (37.0%)   42 (32.3%) 39 (37.5%)   26 (20.6%) 33 (31.7%)  
Class III 44 (35.8%) 26 (24.1%)   37 (28.5%) 19 (18.3%)   38 (30.2%) 37 (35.6%)  
Class IV 24 (19.5%) 21 (19.4%)   26 (20.0%) 21 (20.2%)   32 (25.4%) 12 (11.5%)  
Ejection Fraction (%) 39.8 ± 12.1 41.0 ± 10.8 0.32 39.1 ± 12.1 41.6 ± 10.4 0.04 39.3 ± 12.8 41.2 ± 12.4 0.17
Preoperative laboratory values          
Leukocyte (k/cc) 7.42 ± 2.31 7.20 ± 2.03 0.37 8.09 ± 2.22 7.61 ± 2.20 0.05 9.70 ± 3.13 8.87 ± 2.71 0.01
Neutrophils (k/cc) 4.06 ± 1.35 3.94 ± 1.29 0.40 5.28 ± 1.55 4.97 ± 1.51 0.06 7.45 ± 2.82 6.76 ± 2.45 0.01
Lymphocytes (k/cc) 2.45 ± 1.10 2.40 ± 0.763 0.40 1.91 ± 0.566 1.79 ± 0.533 0.06 1.35 ± 0.462 1.29 ± 0.455 0.24
Monocytes (k/cc) 0.62 ± 0.286 0.62 ± 0.241 0.80 0.65 ± 0.263 0.60 ± 0.225 0.12 0.69 ± 0.299 0.62 ± 0.237 0.02
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.06 ± 0.741 1.07 ± 0.983 0.99 1.14 ± 0.711 1.19 ± 1.02 0.56 1.26 ± 0.61 1.18 ± 0.604 0.06
Glucose (mg/dl) 124.0 ± 48.9 122.4 ± 52.4 0.76 126.1 ± 49.3 110.8 ± 41.6 0.002 136.2 ± 58.8 121.5 ± 46.3 0.01
  1. CABG  coronary artery bypass grafting, CAD  coronary artery disease, CCS  Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina classification system, COPD  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NYHA  New York Heart Association Functional Classification, PCI  percutaneous coronary intervention. Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages; continuous variables were presented as means and standard deviations.