2a-d: 3D-Volume Rendering (approximately 20° RAO and 10° superior view) for surgical planning. Segmentation volumes of bony chest structures, heart, aorta and aortic braches and abdominal organs were generated using threshholding and semiautomated segmentation techniques. Image characteristics (such as colour or transparency) of the individual anatomic structures could then be deefined separately allowing interactive 3D-visualization of the spatial relationship of the anatomical structures. 2e: 50 mm maximum intensity projection slab (slab orientation approximately 20° RAO and 10° superior corresponding to Figure 2
a-d) of the aortic arch showing the calcification of the aortic valve. No significant calcifications of the aortic arch.