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Table 1 Comparison of different methods for the localization of the LAD

From: Localizing intramyocardially embedded left anterior descending artery during coronary bypass surgery: literature review

N Author No. of patients/ complications Technique Advantages Disadvantages
1 G. Robinson[4] 2/0 Using the probe Easy and quick - Intimal damage.
- Requires closure of the distal arteriotomy, which can produce stenosis.
R.L. Fisk[6] 18/0
E. Apostolakis[5] 26/0 - Identification of the probe.
- Within the septal.
- Myocardium can be difficult.
2 I. Gandjbakhch[7] -/- Apical dissection LAD in proximal direction Does not require any special devices - Penetration of right ventricular chamber
R.V. Parachuri[8] 176/4 - Injure diagonal arteries.
3 L.F. Hiratzka[9] 2/0 Doppler Noninvasive - Need for US with probe.
Safe - Not for use on arrested heart.
K. Oda[12] 5/0    Limited use in proximally occluded or severely stenotic arteries.
S. Miwa[10] 6/0
A.S. Olearchyk[11] 1/0
4 U. Aydin[18] 2/0 Cineangiography Simple technique - Need for hybrid operating theater.
- Limited use in patients with kidney failure.
- Only in on-pump patients (with cross clamping).
5 M. Oz - Elevating LAD with beneath located elastic tape. Simple technique - Risk of injuring the LAD.
- Risk of penetration into the right ventricle.
      - Need for the special suture.