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Table 2 Operative and postoperative characteristics

From: Effect of morphine-induced postconditioning in corrections of tetralogy of fallot

  Postconditioning (n=44) Control (n=45) p
Operative type    
Transannular patches (%) 33 (75.0%) 30(66.7%) 0.4858
CPB time (min) 85±17 83±15 0.5575
Aortic cross-clamp time (min) 61±12 58±12 0.2415
Rhythm recovery    
Spontaneous a 40 (90.9%) 36 (80.0%) 0.2297
Defibrillation b 4 (9.1%) 9 (20.0%)
Redo surgery for bleeding 1 (2.3%) 1 (2.2%) 1.0000
First postoperative 24 hours    
Blood transfusion volume (ml/kg/24 h) 14±3 15±3 0.1195
Drainage volume (ml/kg/24 h) 17±4 18±5 0.3010
Peak inotropic score 5.7±2.4 8.4±3.6 <0.0001
Urine volume (ml/kg/24 h) 66±14 61±13 0.0843
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.8±0.3 0.8±0.2 1.0000
Use of furosemide 9 (20.5%) 19 (42.2%) 0.0395
Dose of furosemide (mg/kg/24 h) 1.2±0.3 1.7±0.4 0.0027
Duration of mechanical ventilation (h) 20.6±6.8 28.5±8.3 <0.0001
Duration of ICU stay (h) 40.4±10.3 57.8±15.2 <0.0001
Mortality 0 1 (2.2%) 1.0000
  1. a Heart beat restored after aortic cross-clamp removal without electric defribrillation; b Heart beat restored after aortic cross-clamp removal with one or more electric defribrillation.
  2. CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; ICU, intensive care unit.