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Table 1 Pacing parameters before revision, after revision and normal ranges[3]; mV Millivolt; Ω Ohm; V Volt; ms Milliseconds

From: Pacemaker lead malposition in the left atrial roof is masked by normal pacing thresholds

   Before revision After revision Normal ranges
Sensing P-wave 6.4 - 6.9 mV 2.1 mV ≥1.5 mV
R-wave 9.1 - 14.7 mV 14.6 mV ≥5.0 mV
Impedance (bipolar) Atrial 760 Ω 461 Ω 400 - 1000 Ω
Ventricular 526 Ω 861 Ω 400 - 1000 Ω
Threshold Atrial 0.4 V at 0.4 ms 0.6 V at 0.5 ms <1 V at 0.5 ms
Ventricular 0.5 V at 0.4 ms 0.5 V at 0.5 ms <1 V at 0.5 ms