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Table 2 Serial echocardiographic findings of mitral valve function during systole and diastole

From: Influence of procedural differences on mitral valve configuration after surgical repair for functional mitral regurgitation: in which direction should the papillary muscle be relocated?

  RMAP Posterior PMR Anterior PMR P-value
Preoperative
  MR grade 2.6 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.4a 3.7 ± 0.5a <0.01
  CD (cm) 0.8 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.5a 1.1 ± 0.1 <0.01
Tethering area (cm 2 ) 1.5 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.6a 1.9 ± 0.5 <0.01
  MIA (°) 68 ± 8 61 ± 6 68 ± 7 0.076
  α1 (°) 54 ± 10 49 ± 9 55 ± 6 0.32
  α2 (°) 84 ± 17 83 ± 13 83 ± 9 0.99
  L1 (cm) 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.1 0.98
Postoperative
  MR grade 0.4 ± 0.6** 0.5 ± 0.5** 0.5 ± 0.5** 0.25
  CD (cm) 0.4 ± 0.2** 0.4 ± 0.1** 0.5 ± 0.3** 0.59
Tethering area (cm 2 ) 0.6 ± 0.5* 0.4 ± 0.2* 0.7 ± 0.4* 0.41
  MIA (°) 60 ± 9* 42 ± 10a,c,** 67 ± 6 <0.01
  α1 (°) 55 ± 12 39 ± 9a,c,* 67 ± 12* <0.01
  α2 (°) 100 ± 12* 106 ± 22* 85 ± 10b 0.045
  L1 (cm) 1.4 ± 0.3* 1.1 ± 0.2a,* 1.3 ± 0.1* 0.012
Follow-up
  MR grade 0.6 ± 0.6** 0.7 ± 0.4** 0.5 ± 0.4** 0.62
  CD (cm) 0.5 ± 0.2** 0.5 ± 0.3** 0.5 ± 0.3** 0.74
Tethering area (cm 2 ) 0.8 ± 0.5* 0.5 ± 0.3* 0.7 ± 0.4* 0.21
  MIA (°) 62 ± 9* 43 ± 10a,c,** 69 ± 4 <0.01
  α1 (°) 55 ± 11 40 ± 9a,c,* 67 ± 15* <0.01
  α2 (°) 101 ± 11* 107 ± 16* 85 ± 12a,b 0.013
  L1 (cm) 1.4 ± 0.3* 1.1 ± 0.1a,* 1.3 ± 0.1* 0.017
  1. Data are mean ± SD, or n (%). MR: Mitral regurgitation; RMAP: Restrictive; mitral annuloplasty; PMR: Papillary muscle relocation; CD: Coaptation depth; MIA (Mitral inflow angle): The angle between the mitral annular plane and the bisector of the anterior and posterior leaflets; α1: Opening angle between the anterior leaflet and the mitral annular plane; α2, Opening angle between the posterior leaflet and the mitral annular plane. L1: Distance between tips of open leaflets.
  2. aP < 0.05 compared with RMAP, bP < 0.05 compared with posterior PMR, cP < 0.05 compared with anterior PMR (Tukey–Kramer test). *P < 0.01 compared with preoperative value, **P < 0.001 compared with preoperative value.