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Table 2 erioperative characteristics of the patients

From: New technique of local ischemic preconditioning induction without repetitive aortic cross-clamping in cardiac surgery

Characteristic Control (n = 30) Perfusion (n = 30) IP (n = 30)
Age (years) 55.4 ± 5.2 57.3 ± 5.6 56.6 ± 4.3
Gender (male/female) 5/25 3/27 4/26
Previous myocardial infarction 18 (60%) 20 (67%) 18 (60%)
NYHA class II 21 (70%) 22 (73%) 23 (77%)
NYHA class III 9 (30%) 8 (27%) 7 (23%)
COPD 11 (36%) 10 (33%) 9 (30%)
PAD 5 (17%) 6 (20%) 5 (17%)
CPB time (min) 86 ± 28 98 ± 29 89 ± 32
Aortic cross-clamping time (min) 48 ± 16 49 ± 19 52 ± 23
Total duration of cardioplegia (min) 9.8 ± 2.5 9.8 ± 3.2 9.9 ± 3.6
Number of distal anastomoses 3.2 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.7
Graft material (LIMA/saphenous vein/radial artery) (%) 100/100/13.3 100/100/13.3 100/100/16.7
Duration of mechanical ventilation (h) 14 ± 6 14 ± 4 12 ± 3
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation. COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPB – cardiopulmonary bypass; IP – local ischemic preconditioning; LIMA – left interior mammary artery; NYHA – New York Heart Association; PAD – peripheral arterial disease.