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Table 4 Comparison of clinical characteristics between Survivors and Nonsurvivors

From: Risk factors and outcome analysis after surgical management of ventricular septal rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction: a retrospective analysis

Variable Survivors (N = 30) Nonsurvivors (N = 17) p value Multi-varible p
Demographics     
 Age, years 68.0 ± 7.9 70.5 ± 11.9 0.402  
 Male sex 18(60%) 10(58.8%) 0.937  
 Body weight 62 ± 10.4 63.4 ± 10.0 0.661  
Comorbidities     
 Hypertension 21(70%) 8(47.1%) 0.120  
 Diabetes mellitus 15(50%) 6(35.3%) 0.330  
 Smoking 7(23.3%) 7(41.2%) 0.199  
 Dialysis 2(6.7%) 2(11.8%) 0.547  
 Estimated Creatinine Clearance Rate 45.9 ± 18.2 41.3 ± 24.6 0.467  
 History of Cerebrovascular accident 4(13.3%) 3(17.6%) 0.690  
Acuity     
 Pre-operative mechical support     
  IABP 20(66.7%) 14(82.4) 0.248  
  ECMO 4(13.3%) 2(11.8%) 0.877  
 Prodromal Angina 21(70%) 8(47.1%) 0.120  
 Killip class     
  I 4(13.3%) 2(11.8%) 0.877  
  II 5(16.7%) 2(11.8%) 0.650  
  III 9(30%) 6(35.3%) 0.708  
  IV 12(40%) 7(41.2%) 0.937  
 Coronary artery disease     
  1-V-D 12(40%) 4(23.5%) 0.252  
  2-V-D 4(13.3%) 6(35.3%) 0.077  
  3-V-D 14(46.7%) 7(41.2%) 0.716  
 LV Ejection fraction 51 ± 13.7 36.6 ± 6.4 0.001 0.00.3
 Cardiac emzyme     
  CK 1436.4 ± 1287.2 1324.3 ± 1116.5 0.784  
  CK-MB 129.3 ± 142.6 95.2 ± 99.5 0.425  
 EuroSCORE II 22.9 ± 14.9 38.3 ± 13.9 0.001 0.183
Revascularization     
 PCI 11(36.7%) 6(35.3%) 0.925  
 Thrombolysis 7(23.3%) 5(29.4%) 0.646  
AMI/VSD characteristics     
 Anterior MI 27(90%) 15(88.2%) 0.850  
 Apical rupture 24(80%) 12(70.6%) 0.464  
 Ventricular Aneurysm 15(50%) 5(29.4%) 0.17  
 Qp/Qs 2.8 ± 1.6 3.2 ± 1.68 0.538  
Operative characteristics     
 Repair from MI, days 7.8 ± 12.5 3.7 ± 3.7 0.190  
 Emergency surgery 24(80%) 17(100%) 0.048 0.093
 Concomitant CABG 16(53.3%) 11(64.7%) 0.449  
 CPB time 189.1 ± 44.2 205.7 ± 64.2 0.364  
 AXC time 109.1 ± 44.0 122.7 ± 54.6 0.424  
Cohort effect (2007-2013) 15(50%) 3(17.6%) 0.028 0.649
Post-opearative outcome     
 Cerebrovascular accident 2(6.7%) 3(17.6%) 0.241  
 Renal replacement therapy 8(28.6%) 13(86.7%) 0.001 0.001
 Pneumonia 11(36.7%) 9(52.9%) 0.278  
 Heart block 5(16.7%) 2(11.8%) 0.650  
 Reexploration for bleeding 4(13.3%) 7(41.2%) 0.030 0.322
 Residual VSD 9(30%) 7(41.2%) 0.437  
  1. Abbreviations: IABP intra-aortic balloon pump; ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; V-D vessel disease; CK creatinine kinase; CK-MB creatinine kinase MB fraction; EuroSCORE II European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation II; Qp/Qs ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; MI myocardial infarction; CABG coronary artery bypass grafting; CPB cardiopulmonary bypass; AXC aortic cross-clamp; VSD ventricular septal defect.