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Table 1 Comparison of demographics and perioperative course of cases and controls

From: Outcomes of post-cardiac surgery patients with persistent hyperlactatemia in the intensive care unit: a matched cohort study

  Cases (n = 144) Controls (n = 280) p-value
Preoperative characteristics    
 Gender (male) 93 (64.6 %) 181 (64.6 %) 1.00
 Age (years) 70 (43–89) 70 (42–89) 0.81
 Parsonnet score 18.3 (0–49.0) 16.5 (0–52.5) 0.28
 Renal failurea 22 (15.3 %) 29 (10.4 %) 0.16
 Severe peripheral vascular disease 13 (9 %) 17 (6.1 %) 0.32
 Cardiogenic shockb 5 (3.5 %) 1 (0.4 %) 0.02
 Preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump 16 (11.1 %) 10 (3.6 %) 0.004
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasec 10 (6.9 %) 48 (17.1 %) 0.004
 Diabetesd 38 (26.4 %) 103 (36.8 %) 0.04
Postoperative characteristics    
 Peak lactate (mmol/L) 4.6 (3.0–18.0) 2.1 (0.8–2.9) <0.0001
 Peak serum creatinine level (mmol/L) 127 (66–840) 100 (39–1013) <0.0001
 Intra-aortic balloon pump 29 (20.1 %) 14 (5 %) <0.0001
 Computed tomography chest /abdomen 4 (2.8 %) 0 0.01
 Return to operating room 22 (15.3 %) 5 (1.8 %) <0.0001
 Cardiogenic shock 9 (6.3 %) 2 (0.7 %) 0.002
 Post-operative cardiac hemorrhage 9 (6.3 %) 4 (1.4 %) 0.01
 Acute kidney injury (AKIN 1) 68 (50.4 %) 73 (26.8 %) <0.0001
 Ischemic bowel 1 (0.7 %) 0 0.34
Length of ICU admission (days) 3 (1–96) 1 (1–29) <0.0001
ICU readmission 12 (8.3 %) 13 (4.7 %) 0.13
Mechanical ventilation (days) 0.89 (0.14–75.5) 0.50 (0.09–11.9) <0.0001
Mortality 15 (10.4 %) 4 (1.4 %) <0.0001
  1. Cases presented with peak lactate ≥3.0 mmol/L in the postoperative ICU admission while controls had a peak lactate <3.0 mmol/L. Data is expressed as: number of patients (frequency in percentage) or median (range)
  2. aAcute or chronic renal failure
  3. bWith urinary output <10 cc/hr
  4. cChronic obstructive pulmonary disease on medical treatment
  5. dDiabetes on insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents