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Fig. 1 | Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Fig. 1

From: Long-term results of minimally invasive stand-alone bi-atrial surgical ablation with a bipolar ablation device for persistent and longstanding persistent AF: a single-center case series of 91 patients

Fig. 1

Ablation lines. Pulmonary vein isolation (1); right atrial ablation: line from the RAA targeting the intraatrial septum between the right pulmonary veins (2); line from the lateral part of the right atrium toward the TV annulus (3); circular line at the ostium of the inferior vena cava (4); ligation of the left atrial appendage (5). LAA left atrial appendage, MV mitral valve, PV pulmonary veins, RAA right atrial appendage, SVC superior vena cava, TV tricuspid valve

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