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Table 1 Patient demographics with non-parametric methods for testing whether clinical features and samples of OWT-VAC, Mini-VAC, and Mini-VAC-Instill originate from the same distribution

From: Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients

Baseline characteristic Total (n = 43) OWT-VAC (n = 20) Mini-VAC (n = 8) Mini-VAC-Instill (n = 15) p-value
Age [years], mean (range) 64 (25–91) 65 (39–85) 57 (43–68) 67 (25–91) 0.243a
Sex, n (%)      0.237c
 Women 4/43 (9 %) 1/20 (5 %) 0/8 (0 %) 3/15 (20 %)  
 Men 39/43 (91 %) 19/20 (95 %) 8/8 (100 %) 12/15 (80 %)  
Multimorbidity 32/43 (74 %) 15/20 (75 %) 7/8 (88 %) 10/15 (67 %) 0.534c
Empyema side, n (%)      0.039c
 Right 27/43 (63 %) 11/20 (55 %) 3/8 (38 %) 13/15 (87 %)  
 Left 16/43 (37 %) 9/20 (45 %) 5/8 (62 %) 2/15 (13 %)  
Immunosuppression, n (%) 19/43 (44 %) 8/20 (40 %) 4/8 (50 %) 7/15 (47 %) 0.851c
Previous antibiotics, n (%) 28/43 (65 %) 11/20 (55 %) 7/8 (88 %) 10/15 (67 %) 0.285c
Malignancy 19/43 (44 %) 11/20 (55 %) 3/8 (38 %) 5/15 (33 %) 0.443c
Empyema genesis, n (%)      0.057c
Primary 17/43 (40 %) 4/20 (20 %) 5/8 (62 %) 8/15 (53 %)  
Secondary-postoperative 26/43 (60 %) 16/20 (80 %) 3/8 (38 %) 7/15 (47 %)  
ATS empyema stage, n (%)      0.464c
 Stage II 37/43 (86 %) 17/20 (85 %) 8/8 (100 %) 12/15 (80 %)  
 Stage III 6/43 (14 %) 3/20 (15 %) 0/8 (0 %) 3/15 (20 %)  
Recurrent empyema with previous treatment, n (%) 28/43 (65 %) 13/20 (65 %) 7/8 (88 %) 8/15 (53 %) 0.285c
  1. aANOVA, cChi: Exact Pearson’s chi-squared Test