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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics

From: A 20-year multicentre outcome analysis of salvage mechanical circulatory support for refractory cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery

  Age & Gender Date of surgery Original operation Duration and Mode of AMCS AMCS Complication/s Outcome
Patient 1 76 year old male 2012 Re-do sternotomy and AVR Salvage peripheral VA ECMO due to postoperative pulmonary haemorrhage and cardiogenic shock Femoral artery cannulation site pseudoaneurysm Alive
NYHA I (No breathlessness of exertion, back to work)
Major haemorrhage from cannulation site
Patient 2 40 year old male 2014 Re-do, Re-do sternotomy for type A aortic dissection: Bentall procedure Salvage RVAD due to VF arrest and severe LVSD after weaning from CPB Major haemorrhage and re-exploration in the operating theatre Alive
NYHA II (Breathless on exertion)
Patient 3 82 year old male 2006 MV Repair and CABG 3 Days Could not be weaned from ECMO with severe biVent failure and Died in CTICU
VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB COD: BiVent failure
Patient 4 72 year old Female 2011 AVR 9 Days Septic shock Died in CTICU
VA ECMO as unable to come off CPB Limb ischaemia COD: Septic shock
Patient 5 71 year old male 2011 CABG and AVR 2 Days ECMO cannulation site bleeding and haematoma explored Died in CTICU
Peripheral VA ECMO as unable to come off CPB COD: Shock (unknown cause)
Renal failure a
Patient 6 83 year old female 2012 MVR and CABG <1 Day None Died in CTICU
Peripheral VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB COD: BiVent failure
Patient 7 70 year old male 2013 Re-do sternotomy and AVR 33 Days Major CVA Died in HDU
VA ECMO for cardiac failure. Successfully weaned from ECMO COD: severe Respiratory failure
Patient 8 72 year old male 2013 Re-do sternotomy and AVR <1 Day ECMO cannulation femoral artery dissection Died in CTICU
VA ECMO after iatrogenic aortic dissection leading to cardiogenic shock during Femoral cannulation for CPB COD: Major CVA
Major haemorrhage
Major CVA
Patient 9 51 year old male 2013 Re-suspension of Aortic valve and repair of type A aortic dissection 1 Day Major cannulation site haemorrhage Died in CTICU
Peripheral VA ECMO for cardiogenic shock COD: Haemorrahgic shock and BiVent failure
Patient 10 34 year old female 2014 IVC Leiomyosarcoma resection 3 Days None Died in CTICU
VA ECMO for postoperative cardiogenic shock for intraoperative MI COD: BiVent failure from acute MI
Patient 11 65 year old male 2013 CABG 2 Days Renal failurea Died in CTICU
Salvage VA ECMO for cardiogenic shock Hepatic failure COD: MODS
Pulmonary oedema
Patient 12 71 year old male 2015 CABG 3 Days Major haemorrhag e: Re-opening for bleeding x4 Died in CTICU
VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB COD: biventricular failure and septic shock
limb ischaemia
Patient 13 49 year old male 1997 CABG VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB Note recorded Alive
(Died 2004)
NYHA II
Patient 14 69 year old male 2004 MVR and CABG for mitral valve IE VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB CVA and seizures Alive
Renal failure a NYHA II
Patient 15 41 year old female 2005 Aortic transection and diaphragm rupture VA ECMO Not recorded Alive
NYHA I
Patient 16 59 year old male 2006 Type A aortic dissection 2 Days Not recorded Died
Peripheral VA ECMO as unable to wean from CPB COD: Bivent failure
Patient 17 21 year old male 2014 AVR 3 days ECMO cannulation site bleeding-required re-exploration Alive
Peripheral VA ECMO NYHA I
Cardiac tamponade
Patient 18 51 year old male 2014 AVR 6 days CVA and Seizures Died in ICU
Peripheral VA ECMO limb ischaemia COD: status epilepticus
Patient 19 46 year old male 2014 CABG 2 days Major haemorrahage Died in ICU
Peripheral VA ECMO converted to central VA ECMO due to peripheral ischaemia COD: MODS
Limb ischaemia/compartment syndrome-bilateral fasciotomies
Renal failurea
Patient 20 54 year old male 2015 CABG and AVR 3 days SVT/VT Alive
VA ECMO for cardiogenic shock Major intra-abdominal haemorrhage requiring laparotomy NYHA II (Neuropathic leg pain)
Limb ischaemia
Patient 21 56 year old male 2015 AVR 3 days CVA (occipital infarcts) Alive
Peripheral VA ECMO for cardiogenic shock NYHA I (Visual difficulties)
Patient 22 64 year old male 2015 AVR 1 day Vasoplegia Died
VA ECMO MODS COD: AV dissociation
Patient 23 52 year old male 2015 CABG 1 day MODS Died
VA ECMO COD: MODS
Patient 24 64 year old male 2015 AVR 7 days None Alive
VA ECMO NYHA I
Patient 25 50 year old male 2014 AVR 23 days Renal failurea Alive
BiVAD NYHA I
Haemothorax/mediastinal collection requiring re-operation
Patient 26 54 year old male 2015 Bentall’s procedure and CABG surgery 2 days Hepatic failure COD: MODS
LVAD acute LV failure Renal failure pleasea
Patient 27 61 year old male 2003 CABG 11 days Respiratory failure Alive
LVAD for acute LV failure Renal failurea NYHA II
  1. Abbreviations: ACS Acute coronary syndrome, AF atrial fibrillation, AMCS Advanced mechanical circulatory support, AVR Aortic valve replacement, CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, COD cause of death, BiVent failure BiVentricular failure, MVR Mitral valve replacement, IE Infective endocarditis, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, IVC Inferior vena-cava, NYHA New York Heart Association, CTICU cardiothoracic Intensive care unit, HDU High dependency unit, Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, MI Myocardial infarction, LVSD Left ventricular systolic dysfunction, TVD triple vessel coronary artery disease, LV left ventricular, MR Mitral regurgitation, PVD Peripheral vascular disease, MODS Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, VF Ventricular fibrillation, VAD Ventricular assist device, VA Veno-Arterial
  2. aAll patients with renal failure required renal replacement therapy