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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Impact of prophylactic administration of Levosimendan on short-term and long-term outcome in high-risk patients with severely reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction undergoing cardiac surgery – a retrospective analysis

   Unmatched study population Matched study population
Parameter All patients
n = 288 (100%)
LS +
n = 84 (29.17%)
LS -
n = 204 (70.83%)
p-value LS +
n = 82 (33%)
LS -
n = 164 (67%)
p-value
Age [years]|; mean ± SD 69 ± 11 68 ± 11 70 ± 11 0.16 67 ± 11 68 ± 10 0.62
Sex [females] n (%) 70 (24) 19 (23) 51 (25) 0.76 19 (23) 41 (25) 0.88
Body mass index [kg/m2] mean ± SD 27 ± 7.0 27 ± 5.6 27 ± 7.5 0.71 27 ± 5.7 27 ± 8.2 0.81
Preoperative LVEF [%];mean ± SD 26 ± 7.3 26 ± 7.0 25 ± 8.0 0.14 26 ± 10 27 ± 11 0.47
Preoperative renal impairment; n (%)
• Stage 2 (GFR 85-120ml/min.)
• Stage 3 (GFR 51-85ml/min.)
• Stage 4 (GFR <51ml/min.)
• Stage 5 (Dialysis)
168 (58)
84 (29)
54 (32)
18 (11)
11 (6.5)
49 (58)
13 (27)
20 (41)
10 (20)
6 (12)
119 (58)
71 (60)
34 (29)
8 (6.8)
5 (4.2)
0.013 47 (57)
13 (28)
20 (43)
9 (19)
5 (11)
103 (63)
59 (57)
31 (30)
8 (7.8)
5 (4.9)
0.16
Preoperative atrial fibrillation; n (%) 96 (33) 29 (34) 67 (32) 0.48 29 (38) 57 (35) 0.67
Preoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation; n (%) 14 (4.9) 4 (4.8) 10 (4.9) 1.00 4 (4.9) 9 (5.5) 1.00
Preoperative invasive ventilation; n (%) 22 (7.6) 5 (6.0) 17 (8.3) 0.67 5 (6.1) 15 (9.2) 0.49
Preoperative use of inotropes and vasoactive drugs; n (%)
• Epinephrine
• Norepinephrine
• Milrinone
• Dobutamine
48 (17)
12 (4.2)
18 (6.3)
4 (1.4)
14 (4.9)
9 (11)
1 (1.2)
3 (3.6)
1 (1.2)
4 (4.8)
39 (19)
11 (5.4)
15 (7.4)
3 (1.5)
10 (4.9)
0.11
0.41
1.00
1.00
0.42
9 (11)
1 (1.3)
3 (3.7)
1 (1.2)
4 (4.9)
23 (20)
9 (5.5)
14 (8.5)
2 (1.2)
8 (4.9)
0.12
0.10
0.19
1.00
1.00
EuroSCORE II [%]; mean ± SD
• Isolated CABG group
• Valve/aortic surgery group
• Combi group
17.3 ± 16.4
14.3 ± 13.4
17.9 ± 19.8
21.4 ± 17.4
19.2 ± 16.4
17.8 ± 17.7
11.7 ± 10.2
23.0 ± 16.2
16.5 ± 16.4
12.9 ± 11.7
20.1 ± 21.8
20.4 ± 18.2
0.21
0.071
0.19
0.48
19.0 ± 16.6
15.8 ± 12.1
13.7 ± 10.0
20.1 ± 13.4
17.1 ± 17.3
12.6 ± 11.3
20.9 ± 22.8
21.4 ± 18.9
0.41
0.56
0.37
0.73
Type of Surgery; n (%)
• Isolated CABG
• Valve Surgery or Surgery on Thoracic aorta
• Combination procedures
138 (48)
46 (16)
99 (34)
32 (38)
13 (15)
39 (46)
106 (52)
38 (19)
60 (29)
0.038
0.72
<0.01
32 (39)
12 (15)
38 (46)
71 (43)
33 (20)
60 (37)
0.76
0.16
0.19
Systolic blood pressure at induction of anaesthesia [mmHg]; median (IQR) 113 (101–128) 109 (98–127) 115 (100–130) 0.87 115 (101–123) 119 (103–126) 0.74
Diastolic blood pressure at induction of anaesthesia [mmHg]; median (IQR) 69 (60–82) 67 (59–81) 70 (59–83) 0.87 71 (61–87) 71 (65–79) 0.85
Extracorporeal circulation time [min.]; median (IQR) 98 (79–108) 93 (71–98) 103 (81–112) 0.24 114 ± 34 111 ± 26 0.58
Cardioplegic arrest time [min.]; median (IQR) 67 (51–89) 67 (50–90) 67 (53–86) 0.74 73 ± 30 72 ± 24 0.82
  1. Demographics and intraoperative data of the study population before (left) and after propensity score matching (right). The unmatched population shows significant differences between LS and control group with more severe chronic renal impairment and a more complex procedural profile in the LS group. After matching, the groups are well balanced.
  2. Abbreviations: CABG coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, GFR Glomerular filtration rate, LS Levosimendan, LVEF Left-ventricular ejection fraction