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Table 2 In-hospital outcomes

From: Impact of prophylactic administration of Levosimendan on short-term and long-term outcome in high-risk patients with severely reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction undergoing cardiac surgery – a retrospective analysis

  Matched study population
Parameter LS +
n = 82
LS -
n = 164
p-value
Medical circulatory support
 • Epinephrine required; n (%) 68 (83) 112 (68) <0.001
 • Duration Epinephrine [h]; median (IQR) 19 (4.5–65) 10 (0–38) 0.01
 • Nordrenaline required; n (%) 79 (96) 149 (91) 0.058
 • Duration Nordrenaline [h]; median (IQR) 35 (15–68) 20 (11–47) 0.005
 • Dobutamine required; n (%) 41 (50) 85 (52) 0.68
 • Duration Dobutamine [h]; median (IQR) 25 (9–64) 12 (8–36) 0.83
 • Milrinone required; n (%) 10 (12) 23 (14) 0.73
 • Duration Milrinone [h]; median (IQR) 0.5 (0–14) 2.3 (0–18) 0.328
Mechanical circulatory support
 IABP insertion; n (%)
 • Intraoperatively 9 (11) 8 (4.9) 0.072
 • Postoperatively 8 (9.8) 2 (1.2) 0.003
Duration IABP support [h]; median (IQR) 51 (40–73) 57 (26–75) 0.30
ECLS implantation; n (%) 6 (7.3) 6 (3.7) 0.40
Renal function
 Postoperative GFR [ml/min.]; mean (95%-CI) 68 (50–86) 70 (60–81) 0.48
 Postoperative GFR/preoperative GFR [ml/min.]; mean (95%-CI) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.47
Acute kidney injury; n (%)
 • AKIN I 14 (17) 37 (23) 0.22
 • AKIN II 0 6 (3.7)
 • AKIN III 6 (7.3) 6 (3.7)
 New onset chronic dialysis; n (%) 1 (1.2) 3 (1.8) 1.00
Cardiac Injury
 AF within 24h post-OP; n (%) 62 (76) 72 (44) <0.0001
 CK until POD4 [U/l]; mean (95%-CI) 712 (368–1056) 619 (400–839) 0.402
 CKMB until POD4 [U/l]; mean (95%-CI) 47 (23–72) 41 (29–54) 0.17
Length of stay
 Postoperative LOS ICU [h]; median (IQR) 150 (71–200) 139 (67–168) 0.047
 Postoperative LOS total [d]; median (IQR) 10 (8.0–13) 11 (7.0–14) 0.94
  1. Comparison between patients who received prophylactic LS and patients who did not. Patients in the LS group show increased need for medical and mechanical circulatory support (IABP) as well as an increased rate of postoperative atrial fibrillation, resulting in a prolonged demand for intensive care
  2. Abbreviations: AF Atrial fibrillation, AKIN Acute kidney injury network, CK Creatinkinase, CKMB Creatinkinase, isoform MB, CRP C-reactive protein, ECLS Extracorporeal life support, IABP Intra-aortic balloon pump, LOS Length of stay, LS Levosimendan, POD post-operative day, WBC White blood cell count