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Table 1 Results of univariate analysis to determine factors associated with smoking status

From: Smoking and timing of cessation on postoperative pulmonary complications after curative-intent lung cancer surgery

   Current smokers Ex-smokers
<6 weeks
Ex-smokers
≥6 weeks
Never smokers p-value
   (n = 111) (n = 55) (n = 245) (n = 51)  
Mean (95%CI) age (years) 67 (65–68.3)f 68 (65.6–9.9)e,f 70 (68.8–70.8)e 72 (67.2–72.8)e,f 0.006a
Median (IQR) BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 (6.3)f 24 (7.5)e 26.9 (5.4)e,f 26 (6.4)e,f <0.001b
Mean (95%CI) FEV1% predicted 72 (68.6–75.7)g 78 (73.5–81.8)f,g 79 (76.6–81.8)e,f 94 (87.4–100.5)e <0.001a
COPD 50.4% (n = 56)g 20.0% (n = 11)f,g 26.9% (n = 66)e,f 5.9% (n = 3)e <0.001c
COPD Severity (FEV1% predicted) Mild (≥80) 18.9% (n = 21) 3.6% (n = 2) 6.5% (n = 16) 2% (n = 1) 0.358d
Moderate (≥50 to <80) 23.4% (n = 26) 16.4% (n = 9) 15.5% (n = 38) 3.9% (n = 2)
Severe (≥30 to <50) 8.1% (n = 9) 0% 4.5% (n = 11) 0%
Male sex 63.9% (n = 71)f 60.0% (n = 33)e,f 63.2% (n = 155)f 35.2% (n = 18)e 0.002c
Ischaemic heart disease 14.4% (n = 16) 18.1% (n = 10) 15.1% (n = 37) 7.8% (n = 4) 0.476c
Diabetes 12.6% (n = 14) 5.5% (n = 3) 13.1% (n = 32) 11.7% (n = 6) 0.503d
Hypertension 42.3% (n = 47) 41.8% (n = 23) 45.3% (n = 111) 52.9% (n = 27) 0.604c
ASA score ≥3 58.5% (n = 65) 52.7% (n = 29) 49.8% (n = 122) 41.2% (n = 21) 0.195c
Preoperative activity level <400 m 29.4% (n = 32/109) 25% (n = 13/52) 29.7% (n = 71/239) 21.6% (n = 11/51) 0.634c
Staging I 54.1% (n = 60) 47.3% (n = 26) 48.2% (n = 118) 49.0% (n = 25) 0.36 d
II 29.7% (n = 33) 32.7% (n = 18) 34.7% (n = 85) 21.6% (n = 11)
IIIA 14.4% (n = 16) 18.2% (n = 10) 15.9% (n = 39 21.6% (n = 11)
IIIB 0.90% (n = 1) 0% 0.41% (n = 1) 3.9% (n = 2)
VATS No 91.9% (n = 102) 85.5% (n = 47) 92.7% (n = 227) 92.2% (n = 47) 0.396d
Yes 8.1% (n = 9) 14.5% (n = 8) 7.3% (n = 18) 7.8% (n = 4)
Surgery Lobectomy 81.1% (n = 90) 78.2% (n = 43) 77.6% (n = 190) 74.5% (n = 38) 0.592d
Subsegmectomy/wedge 10.8% (n = 12) 9.1% (n = 5) 14.3% (n = 35) 17.6% (n = 9)
Pneumonectomy 5.4% (n = 6) 10.9% (n = 6) 6.5% (n = 16) 7.8% (n = 4)
Sleeve 1.8% (n = 2) 0% 1.6% (n = 4) 0%
Chest wall 0.9% (n = 1) 1.8% (n = 1) 0% 0%
Analgesia Epidural 40.5% (n = 45) 29.0% (n = 16) 37.1% (n = 91) 43.1% (n = 22) 0.217d
Intrathecal morphine 23.4% (n = 26) 36.4% (n = 20) 21.6% (n = 53) 21.6% (n = 11)
Morphine infusion 11.7% (n = 13) 10.9% (n = 6) 8.6% (n = 21) 5.9% (n = 3)
PCA 5.4% (n = 6) 7.3% (n = 4) 5.3% (n = 13) 5.9% (n = 3)
Paravertebral 18.9% (n = 21) 12.7% (n = 7) 26.5% (n = 65) 23.5% (n = 12)
Other 0% 3.6% (n = 2) 0.8% (n = 2) 0%
  1. BMI body mass index, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ASA American Society of Anaethesiologists, VATS Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, PCA patient controlled analgesia.a ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis;b Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn Bonferroni post-hoc multiple comparison test;c Chi-sqaure test with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis;d Fisher’s Exact test with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. When overall p-value is less than 0.05; each subscript letter(e-g) denotes a subset of smoking category whose column proportion does not differ significantly from each other (Bonferroni post-hoc multiple comparison test)