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Table 2 Morbidity and mortality in patients stratified by smoking status

From: Smoking and timing of cessation on postoperative pulmonary complications after curative-intent lung cancer surgery

   Current smokers Ex-smokers
<6 weeks
Ex-smokers
≥6 weeks
Never smokers p-value
   (n = 111) (n = 55) (n = 245) (n = 51)  
PPC Frequency 21.6% (n = 24)d 10.9% (n = 6)c,d 11.8% (n = 29)c,d 2.0% (n = 1)c 0.004a
ITU admission 14.4% (n = 16)d 5.5% (n = 3)c,d 4.5% (n = 11)c,d 0%c 0.001b
Median (IQR) LOS (days) 6 (5)d 5 (3)c,d 6 (4)c,d 5 (2)c 0.001f
Median (IQR) ITU LOS (days) 4 (10) (n = 16)e 2 ( * ) (n = 3)c,d,e 3 (2) (n = 11)c,d 0 (0) (n = 0)c 0.002f
30-day hospital readmissions 13.6% (n = 15) 14.8% (n = 8) 15.1% (n = 36) 7.8% (n = 4) 0.793a
Mortality Total 30.6% (n = 34) 32.7% (n = 18) 30.2% (n = 74) 23.5% (n = 12) 0.744a
30-day 1.8% (n = 2) 0% 2.4% (n = 6) 2.0% (n = 1) 0.874b
90-day 5.4% (n = 6) 1.8% (n = 1) 3.2% (n = 8) 5.9% (n = 3) 0.575b
Cause of death Early Postoperative Complications 2.7% (n = 3) 3.6% (n = 2) 2.9% (n = 7) 2.0% (n = 1) 0.970b
Cancer related 18.9% (n = 21) 20.0% (n = 11) 20.4% (n = 50) 17.6% (n = 9) 0.968a
Non-cancer related 6.3% (n = 7) 5.5% (n = 3) 6.9% (n = 17) 1.9% (n = 1) 0.768b
Uncertain 2.7% (n = 3) 3.6% (n = 2) 0% 1.9% (n = 1) 0.015b
Mean (95%CI) overall survival (months) excluding early postoperative complications 42 (42–45) 42 (38–47) 43 (40–46) 46 (41–50) 0.778g
  1. PPC postoperative pulmonary complication, ITU intensive therapy unit, LOS length of stay.a Chi-square test with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis;b Fisher’s Exact test with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. When overall p-value is less than 0.05; each subscript letter(c-e) denotes a subset of smoking category whose column proportion does not differ significantly from each other (Bonferroni post-hoc multiple comparison test);f kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn-Bonferroni post-hoc multiple comparison test;g ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis.;h interquartile range not applicable due to number of patients