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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics before and after propensity score matching

From: Short-term outcomes of robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a propensity score matched analysis

Variables Before matching After matching
RAMIE (n = 27) VAMIE (n = 88) P value RAMIE (n = 27) VAMIE (n = 27) P value
Gender    0.636    1.000
 Male 20 (74.1) 61 (69.3)   20 (74.1) 20 (74.1)  
 Female 7 (25.9) 27 (30.7)   7 (25.9) 7 (25.9)  
Age 61.0 ± 8.0 62.9 ± 8.3 0.310 61.0 ± 8.0 61.6 ± 9.8 0.621*
BMI (kg/m2) 21.5 ± 2.7 21.4 ± 2.7 0.935 21.5 ± 2.7 21.9 ± 2.8 0.578
FEV1% predicted 94.5 ± 13.8 84.2 ± 19.6 0.012 94.6 ± 13.8 92.9 ± 23.0 0.747
Charlson comorbidity index    0.198    0.506
 1 1 (3.7) 6 (6.8)   1 (3.7) 4 (14.8)  
 2 10 (37.0) 20 (22.7)   10 (37.0) 8 (29.6)  
 3 13 (48.1) 37 (42.0)   13 (48.1) 11 (40.7)  
 4 3 (11.1) 25 (28.4)   3 (11.1) 4 (14.8)  
Tumor location    0.457    0.514
 Proximal 1 (3.7) 8 (9.1)   1 (3.7) 3 (11.1)  
 Middle 18 (66.6) 48 (54.5)   18 (66.6) 15 (55.6)  
 Distal/EGJ 8 (29.6) 32 (36.4)   8 (29.6) 9 (33.3)  
Histological type    0.395    0.334†
 Squamous cell carcinoma 23 (85.2) 80 (90.9)   23 (85.2) 25 (92.6)  
 other 4 (14.8) 8 (9.1)   4 (14.8) 2 (7.4)  
Pathologic T stage    0.042    0.334
 T1 4 (14.8) 13 (14.8)   4 (14.8) 1 (3.7)  
 T2 13 (48.1) 21 (23.9)   13 (48.1) 13 (48.1)  
 T3 10 (37.0) 54 (61.4)   10 (37.0) 13 (48.1)  
Pathologic N stage    0.260    0.387
 N0 13 (48.1) 58 (65.9)   13 (48.1) 18 (66.6)  
 N1 10 (37.0) 17 (19.3)   10 (37.0) 8 (29.6)  
 N2 3 (11.1) 11 (12.5)   3 (11.1) 1 (3.7)  
 N3 1 (3.7) 2 (2.3)   1 (3.7) 0  
Tumor grade    0.399    0.285
 Well differentiated 2 (7.4) 13 (14.8)   2 (7.4) 6 (22.2)  
 Moderate differentiated 19 (70.4) 63 (71.6)   19 (70.4) 17 (63.0)  
 Poorly differentiated 6 (22.2) 12 (13.6)   6 (22.2) 4 (14.8)  
  1. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables or number (%) for categorical data
  2. *Mann-Whitney U test; †Fisher’s exact test
  3. RAMIE robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy, VAMIE video-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy, BMI Body mass index, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, GEJ gastroesophageal junction