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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the cohort and across grades of diastolic function

From: Diastolic dysfunction is common and predicts outcome after cardiac surgery

Diastolic grade (N) Total (577) Grade 0 (155) Grade 1 (179) Grade 2 (203) Grade 3 (40) P
Age (years) 66 (58–74) 62 (53–69) 66 (58–75) 70 (60–78) 69.5 (61–78.5) 0.0001
Timing of echo pre-op (days) 4 (1.5–10) 2.5 (1–8) 3 (1.4–6.3) 5 (2–26) 7.1 (2.3–13.2) 0.0001
Female sex 160 (27.7%) 25 (16%) 46 (26%) 80 (39%) 9 (23%) 0.0001
Height (cm) 172.7 (165–179) 175.3 (167.6–180.3) 172.7 (165–180.3) 170.2 (162.6–177.8) 172.7 (162.6–179.1) 0.0003
Weight (kg) 84.8 (74.5–98.1) 85.3 (74–96) 83.9 (74.5–94.4) 86 (75.2–103.3) 84.3 (72.5–102) 0.4
Body-mass index (kg/m2) 28.6 (25.5–32.6) 27.7 (25.3–31.2) 28.3 (25.2–31.9) 29.9 (26.5–35.0) 29.4 (25.4–32.8) 0.001
E (cm/s) 80.5 (64.2–98.7) 76.9 (66–90.8) 62.8 (51.4–72) 96.7 (82.2–112) 115.5 (96.4–134) 0.0001
A (cm/s) 79.5 (64.4–97.2) 71.4 (61.2–87.1) 78.5 (65.8–89.3) 95.4 (75.5–116) 39.9 (32.2–54.6) 0.0001
Decel time (ms) 222 (188–269) 220 (187–259) 235 (202–288) 226 (191–272) 156 (130–191.5) 0.0001
LVEF (%) 55 (45–60) 60 (55–65) 55 (45–60) 55 (40–60) 30 (22.5–50) 0.0001
e’ (cm/s) 6.1 (4.9–7.3) 8.1 (7.4–9.4) 5.9 (5–6.7) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 5.1 (4.4–6.2) 0.0001
E/e’ ratio 12.6 (9.6–17.1) 9.1 (7.7–11.1) 11 (9.3–12.1) 17.9 (15.8–22.8) 23.1 (18.0–27.6) 0.0001
Septal thickness (cm) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.0003
Posterior wall thickness (cm) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.0001
End-diastolic diameter (cm) 4.6 (4.2–5.1) 4.6 (4.2–4.9) 4.6 (4.1–5.0) 4.7 (4.2–5.2) 5.4 (5.0–5.9) 0.0001
Prior MI 223 (38.7%) 44 (28%) 71 (40%) 92 (45%) 16 (40%) 0.01
Prior heart failure 228 (39.5%) 40 (26%) 57 (32%) 100 (49%) 31 (78%) 0.0001
Prior arrhythmia 24 (4.2%) 3 (2%) 8 (4%) 10 (5%) 3 (8%) 0.3
Diabetes 244 (42.3%) 47 (30%) 59 (33%) 116 (57%) 22 (55%) 0.0001
Hypertension 324 (56.1%) 77 (50%) 98 (55%) 126 (62%) 23 (58%) 0.1
Moderate or worse chronic lung disease 28 (4.9%) 5 (3%) 11 (6%) 10 (5%) 2 (5) 0.7
Peripheral vascular disease 67 (11.6%) 12 (8%) 14 (8%) 33 (16%) 8 (20%) 0.008
Creatinine 1.0 (0.9–1.3) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.3 (1.0–2.3) 0.0001
Procedure       0.0001
 CAB alone 446 (77.3%) 10 (6%) 19 (11%) 52 (26%) 13 (33%)  
 AVR alone 94 (16.3%) 138 (89%) 153 (85%) 132 (65%) 23 (57%)  
 CAB-AVR 37 (6.4%) 7 (5%) 7 (4%) 19 (9%) 4 (10%)  
Post-op creatinine 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 1.1 (1.0–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.4) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 1.7 (1.2–2.9) 0.0001
Acute kidney injury (>  2× increase in creatinine) 35 (6%) 8 (5%) 7 (4%) 19 (9%) 1 (3%) 0.09
Length of hospital stay (days) 10 (8–15) 9 (7–13) 10 (8–14) 11 (7–17) 20.5 (12.5–24) 0.0001
Reintubation 16 (2.8%) 4 (3%) 5 (3%) 7 (3%) 0 0.7
ICU readmission 24 (4.2%) 7 (5%) 4 (2%) 10 (5%) 3 (8%) 0.4
Prolonged ventilation > 24 h 46 (8%) 6 (4%) 11 (6%) 22 (11%) 7 (18%) 0.009
AF 103 (17.9%) 29 (19%) 25 (14%) 39 (19%) 10 (25%) 0.3
In-hospital mortality 17 (3%) 3 (2%) 0 11 (5%) 3 (8%) 0.004
  1. Data is displaced as median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and N(%) for categorical variables