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Table 2 Frequency and association of patient demographics, clinical characteristics and underlying disease severity with HRG at the time of presentation of IE patients admitted at AKUH 2015–2017 (n = 36)

From: Microbiological and clinical profile of infective endocarditis patients: an observational study experience from tertiary care center Karachi Pakistan

PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS HRG N = 14 NVG N = 22 p-value Odds Ratio (Confidence interval)
Mean Age 45 38
Gender: Male 8 15 0.501 0.838 (0.490–1.432)
MoDC
Definite 12 16 0.361 1.179 (0.844–1.645)
Probable 2 6 0.361 0.524 (0.122–2.240)
Acute clinical presentation 5 12 0.270 0.655 (0.294–1.457)
Sub-acute presentation 9 10 0.270 1.414 (0.775–2.581)
Positive culture 10 20 0.126 0.786 (0.550–1.122)
Pure culture growth 14 18 0.091 1.222 (1.004–1.488)
Rheumatic heart disease 0 4 0.090  
Prosthetic heart valve / cardiac implants 11 0
Congenital heart disease 6 5 0.201 1.886 (0.708–5.022)
Severity at presentation
 Signs of thromboembolisma 2 7 0.236 0.449(0.108–1.860)
 Sepsis 1 6 0.137 0.262 (0.951–1.714)
 Multi organ dysfunction 4 7 0.837 0.898 (0.321–2.514)
 Rash /splinter hemorrhage 0 4 0.091
Previous history of infective endocarditis 1 0 0.204
Murmur 2 8 0.149 0.393 (0.920–1.972)
Raised infectious markers 1 2 0.837 0.786 (0.078–7.876)
Radiologic evidence on Echocardiography     
Vegetation 13 14 0.048 1.45 (1.03–2.066)
Mitral valve prolapse 0 3 0.149
Peri-annular abscess 2 3 0.956 1.048 (0.199–5.504)
Valve perforation / dehiscence 1 1 0.740 1.571 (0.107–23.140)
Portal hypertension 8 11 0.826
Aortic regurgitation 6 10 0.878 0.943 (0.442–2.013)
Mitral regurgitation 4 7 0.837 0.898 (0.321–2.514)
Pulmonary regurgitation 2 0 0.068a
  1. HRG High risk group, NVG Native valve group, MoDC Modified Dukes Criteria
  2. a= gangrene, unilateral weakness, slurring of speech, loss of consciousness