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Fig. 2 | Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Fig. 2

From: Skeletonized internal thoracic artery harvesting: a low thermal damage electrosurgical device provides improved endothelial layer and tendency to better integrity of the vessel wall compared to conventional electrosurgery

Fig. 2

a Hemorrhage with intraluminal breakthrough in an ITA prepared by conventional EC; extension of the bleeding of over 50% of the circumference = score “3”, (H.E.-staining, magnification × 50). b Endothelial damage in an ITA prepared by the conventional EC; arrows show intraluminal spots without endothelium (score “3”), (CD31-immunostaining, magnification × 100). c Wall dehiscence; separation of the vessel layers demonstrating an interruption in wall integrity in the media and adventitia over 75% of the circumference (score “4”); prepared by conventional EC (H.E.-staining, magnification × 50). d Preserved vessel wall; perfect integrity without adventitial bleeding (score “0”); prepared by PB (H.E.-staining, magnification × 50). e Preserved endothelial layer covering the whole circumference (score “0”); prepared by PB, (CD31-immunostaining, magnification × 100)

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