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Table 1 Patient characteristics and analysis of continuous (mean and ranges) and categorical variables (%)

From: Neurological complications after cardiac surgery: a retrospective case-control study of risk factors and outcome

Variable Study group (n = 91) Matched patients (n = 113) P value
Preoperative characteristics
Age (years) 65.4 (25–68) 65.4 (29–84) 0.99
Gender (M) 60 (65%) 73 (64%) 0.13
Height (cm) 163 (147–184) 163 (143–192) 0.64
Weight (kg) 72.31 (48.8–114) 74 (44.2–135.5) 0.39
BMI 27.07 (17.5–41.7) 27.5 (16–43.06) 0.52
BSA 1.8 (1.43–2.32) 1.82 (1.35–2.58) 0.35
Diabetes 32 (35%) 31 (27%) 0.36
Hypertension 66 (72%) 85 (75%) 0.64
Dyslipidemia 34 (37%) 45 (40%) 0.66
Chronic Renal Failure 10 (11%) 12 (10%) 1
Smoking    0.94
 Nonsmoker 49 (54%) 55 (49%)  
 Current smoker 15 (16%) 25 (22%)  
 Former smoker 27 (30%) 33 (29%)  
Family history of stroke 19 (21%) 29 (26%) 0.52
Bilateral ICA stenosis < 50% 52 (57%) 9 (8%) <.001
Bilateral ICA stenosis of any grade 63 (69%) 17 (15%) <.001
Surgical Procedure
CABG 25/91 (27%) 29/113 (26%) 0.77
Valve operations 14/91 (15%) 26/113 (23%) 0.17
Aortic valve repair/replacement 5 12  
 Mitral valve repair/replacement 9 14  
 Complex procedures 16/91 (18%) 28/113 (24%) 0.21
CABG + Aortic surgery 4 7  
 Combined aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve 4 9  
 Heart transplantation 3 7  
 LVAD 3 3  
 Left ventricular aneurysmectomy 1 1  
 Repair of post-infarction VSD 1 1  
 Aortic procedures 24/91 (27%) 25/113 (22%) 0.48
Ascending aorta surgery 5 7  
 Aortic arch surgery 2 5  
 Combined procedure 10 7  
 Aortic root surgery 3 3  
 Valve operation + Aortic procedure 3 1  
 CABG + Aortic procedure 1 2  
 Re-do Operation 12/91 (13%) 5/113 (5%) 0.02
Surgical Details
CBP time (minutes) 111.11 (0–257) 99.12 (0–257) 0.10
Aortic clamp time (minutes) 77.67 (0–216) 71.47 (0–197) 0.28
Hypothermic circulatory arrest 25 (27%) 17 (15%) 0.02
On-pump CABG with beating heart 7 (7%) 3 (3%) 0.10
Off-pump CABG 4 (4%) 6 (5%) 0.2
Number of distal anastomoses (from 1 to 5) 40 (44%) 44 (39%) 0.3
Intraoperative hemofiltration 3 (3%) 2 (2%) 0.07
Complicated weaning from CPB 12 (13%) 5 (4%) 0.02
Cardioplegia delivery
 Anterograde 70 (77%) 86 (76%) 0.12
 None 11 (12%) 9 (8%)
 Anterograde+selective 7 (8%) 12 (11%)
Anterograde+ retrograde 3 (3%) 6 (5%)
Cardioplegia carrier
 Crystalloid 8 (10%) 3 (3%) 0.02
 Blood 72 (90%) 110 (97%)
Cardiac rhythm at sternal closure
 Sinus 37 (41%) 61 (54%) 0.04
 Non sinus (AF, AVB, PM) 54 (59%) 52 (46%)
 Defibrillation required at weaning 23 (25%) 23 (20%) 0.31
 Surgery time (minutes) 152.24 (21–368) 132.08 (35–660) 0.07
Intra-aortic balloon pump 9 (10%) 9 (8%) 0.62
Post-operative data
Severe hypotension 20 (22%) 25 (22%) 0.86
Need for vasoactive drugs 55 (60%) 54 (48%) 0.03
Transfusion of red blood cells (units) 2 (2–15) 1.6 (0–22) 0.26
Transfusion of plasma (units) 1.75 (0–18) 1.34 (0–27) 0.32
Transfusion of platelets (units) 3.1 (0–22) 2.34 (0–20) 0.21
  1. BMI body mass index, BSA body surface area, ICA internal carotid artery, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, LVAD left ventricle assist device, VSD ventricular septal defect, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, AF atrial fibrillation, AVB atrio-ventricular block, PM pacemaker