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Table 2 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Impact of bleeding complications on length of stay and critical care utilization in cardiac surgery patients in England

Covariate All patients (N = 7774) No bleeding (N = 7254) Bleeding (N = 520)
Age in years
 •18–45 293 (4%) 278 (4%) 15 (3%)
 •46–64 2187 (28%) 2063 (28%) 124 (24%)
 •65 or older 5294 (68%) 4913 (68%) 381 (73%)
Gender
 •Male 5596 (72%) 5244 (72%) 352 (68%)
 •Female 2178 (28%) 2010 (28%) 168 (32%)
Surgery type
 •Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) 3963 (51%) 3762 (52%) 201 (38%)
 •Valve replacement/repair 2363 (30%) 2224 (31%) 139 (27%)
 •Aortic procedure 160 (2%) 136 (2%) 24 (5%)
 •Multiple procedures 1288 (17%) 1132 (16%) 156 (30%)
Cardiopulmonary bypass
 •Yes 6447 (83%) 6012 (83%) 435 (84%)
 •No 1327 (17%) 1242 (17%) 85 (16%)
Admission type
 •Elective 5400 (69%) 5099 (70%) 301 (58%)
 •Non-elective/emergency 917 (12%) 831 (11%) 86 (17%)
 •Transferred from another hospital 1457 (19%) 1324 (18%) 133 (26%)
Health conditions†
 •Myocardial infarction 1819 (23%) 1679 (23%) 140 (27%)
 •Congestive heart failure 1872 (24%) 1707 (24%) 165 (32%)
 •Cerebrovascular disease 456 (6%) 419 (6%) 37 (7%)
 •Peripheral vascular disease 1431 (18%) 1287 (18%) 144 (28%)
 •Diabetes 1951 (25%) 1842 (25%) 109 (21%)
 •Chronic pulmonary disease 1559 (20%) 1463 (20%) 96 (18%)
 •Renal disease 1003 (13%) 902 (12%) 101 (19%)
 •Anemia 287 (4%) 265 (4%) 22 (4%)
Medication use†
 •Antiplatelet drugs 4681 (60%) 4382 (60%) 299 (58%)
 •Oral anticoagulant drugs 1001 (13%) 936 (13%) 65 (13%)
 •Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 448 (6%) 428 (6%) 20 (4%)
 •Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 588 (8%) 554 (8%) 34 (7%)
 •Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) 94 (1%) 89 (1%) 5 (1%)
Healthcare utilization†
 •Hospitalization 2968 (38%) 2725 (38%) 243 (47%)
 • ≥ 11 primary care encounters 3779 (49%) 3548 (49%) 231 (44%)
 • ≥ 6 distinct prescription medications 2319 (30%) 2157 (30%) 162 (31%)
  1. † Health conditions, medication use, and healthcare utilization were assessed during the 12-month baseline period prior to the index cardiac procedure. Distributions of all assessed covariates are provided in Additional file 1: Table S3