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Table 3 Procedural details

From: Long-term outcome after mitral valve replacement using biological versus mechanical valves

  Total
N = 324
Biological MVR
N = 265
Mechanical MVR
N = 59
p-value
Operative approach     0.001
 MIC, % 135/324 (41.7) 99/265 (37.4) 36/59 (61.0)  
 CS, % 189/324 (58.3) 166/265 (62.6) 23/59 (39.0)  
MV size     0.652
 25 mm, % 2/324 (0.6) 2/265 (0.8)  
 26 mm, % 1/324 (0.3) 1/265 (0.4)  
 27 mm, % 45/324 (13.9) 40/265 (15.1) 5/59 (8.5)  
 29 mm, % 99/324 (30.6) 82/265 (30.9) 17/59 (28.8)  
 31 mm, % 128/324 (39.5) 100/265 (37.7) 28/59 (47.5)  
 33 mm, % 49/324 (15.1) 40/265 (15.1) 9/59 (15.3)  
Times
 Procedure time (min) 196.5 [166.3–240.0] [324] 197.0 [165.5–239.0] [265] 192.0 [170.0–258.0] [59] 0.539
 CPB time (min) 117.0 [166.3–146.8] [324] 114.0 [94.0–145.0] [265] 126.0 [105.0–154.0] [59] 0.030
 x-clamp time (min) 72.0 [59.0–92.8] [324] 71.0 [58.0–91.0] [265] 74.0 [62.0–99.0] [59] 0.235
 Length of intubation (h) 12.0 [9.0–18.0] [324] 12.0 [9.0–18.0] [265] 11.0 [8.0–17.0] [59] 0.230
 Length of ICU (h) 34.5 [22.0–75.8] [324] 34.0 [22.0–72.0] [265] 47.0 [23.0–108.0] [59] 0.095
 Length of hospital stay (d) 12.0 [9.0–17.0] [324] 11.0 [9.0–17.0] [265] 14.0 [11.0–19.0] [59] 0.012
Concomitant procedures
 Cryo ablation, % 82/323 (25.4) 65/265 (24.5) 17/58 (29.3) 0.448
 LAA closure, % 88/324 (27.2) 74/265 (27.9) 14/59 (23.7) 0.512
 Tricuspid valve repair, % 63/323 (19.5) 53/264 (20.1) 10/59 (16.9) 0.584
 PFO closure, % 13/324 (4.0) 10/265 (3.8) 3/59 (5.1) 0.712
 ASD closure, % 6/324 (1.9) 5/265 (1.9) 1/59 (1.7) 1.000
Second MV repair, % 9/324 (2.8) 2/265 (0.8) 7/59 (11.9) < 0.001
Conversion to CSa, % 9/137 (6.6) 9/101 (8.9) 0/36 (0) 0.112
  1. Legend: Values are patients applicable/patients with available information with percentage in brackets OR medians with IQR in brackets and available patient number in brackets; aReasons for conversion were severe forms of trichterbrust, severely elevated diaphragm or severe adhesion of the right pleura, as well as severe intraoperative bleeding
  2. ASD atrial septum defect, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, CS conventional sternotomy, ICU intensive care unit, LAA left atrial appendage, MIC minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, MV mitral valve, PFO patent foramen ovale, SD standard deviation