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Table 3 Estimated average changes in ROTEM values after four waves of interventions (blood product transfusions)

From: Interval changes in ROTEM values during cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery patients

Outcome Intervention Na Age Group Estimated ROTEM Values pb,c
Before (95% CI) After (95% CI) Change (95% CI)
HEPTEM CT (sec) Intervention I 266 90 days or less 223.2 (202.0, 244.5) 323.1 (295.9, 350.4) 99.9 (64.0, 135.8) < 0.001
Intervention II 206 305.9 (282.3, 329.4) 221.8 (175.3, 268.3) −84.0 (−161.1, −7.0) 0.021
Intervention III 219 231.5 (185.4, 277.5) 466.3 (382.7, 550.0) 234.9 (89.9, 379.8) < 0.001
Intervention IV 189 444.2 (345.7, 542.7) 291.9 (221.9, 361.9) −152.3 (−265.6, −39.0) 0.001
Intervention I 266 Older than 90 days to 2 years 210.2 (187.5, 232.9) 293.7 (272.1, 315.3) 83.5 (66.8, 100.3) < 0.001
Intervention II 206 280.0 (266.9, 293.2) 207.3 (194.9, 219.7) −72.7 (−90.8, −54.6) < 0.001
Intervention III 219 217.1 (199.7, 234.5) 298.1 (269.2, 327.0) 81.0 (51.1, 110.9) < 0.001
Intervention IV 189 294.8 (201.3, 388.2) 279.4 (176.5, 382.2) −15.4 (−100.6, 69.8) 1.000
Intervention I 266 Older than 2 years 186.1 (166.2, 206.1) 218.3 (191.9, 244.7) 32.2 (−5.3, 69.6) 0.175
Intervention II 206 242.7 (219.9, 265.4) 207.3 (194.9, 219.7) −20.7 (−66.7, 25.4) 1.000
Intervention III 219 222.5 (204.7, 240.4) 238.9 (217.5, 260.3) 16.4 (−5.3, 38.1) 0.401
Intervention IV 189 267.8 (159.1, 376.4) 223.9 (122.0, 325.9) −43.8 (−76.1, −11.5) 0.001
HEPTEM MCF (mm) Intervention I 266 90 days or less 62.2 (58.6, 65.7) 30.1 (26.5, 33.7) −32.1 (−35.3, −28.8) < 0.001
Intervention II 205 32.8 (30.1, 35.5) 58.0 (55.3, 60.7) 25.2 (21.5, 29.0) < 0.001
Intervention III 217 57.0 (53.5, 60.6) 55.2 (51.0, 59.3) −1.9 (−6.8, 3.1) 1.000
Intervention IV 188 54.7 (47.6, 61.8) 58.7 (52.0, 65.5) 4.0 (−1.8, 9.9) 0.659
Intervention I 266 Older than 90 days to 2 years 59.9 (56.4, 63.5) 36.6 (33.1, 40.2) −23.3 (−25.5, −21.1) < 0.001
Intervention II 205 38.7 (36.6, 40.8) 56.0 (53.7, 58.4) 17.3 (13.8, 20.9) < 0.001
Intervention III 217 55.0 (51.8, 58.3) 55.6 (52.2, 59.0) 0.6 (−2.5, 3.7) 1.000
Intervention IV 188 56.4 (49.6, 63.2) 58.3 (50.9, 65.7) 1.9 (−3.8, 7.6) 1.000
Intervention I 266 Older than 2 years 59.7 (56.3, 63.1) 47.0 (42.4, 51.6) −12.7 (−18.3, −7.2) < 0.001
Intervention II 205 44.3 (40.6, 48.0) 51.0 (40.6, 61.4) 6.7 (−10.4, 23.8) 1.000
Intervention III 217 52.6 (45.2, 60.0) 50.4 (46.6, 54.2) −2.2 (−12.1, 7.8) 1.000
Intervention IV 188 53.2 (45.5, 61.0) 57.1 (49.3, 64.8) 3.9 (−0.9, 8.6) 0.250
FIBTEM MCF (mm) Intervention I 255 90 days or less 17.0 (13.2, 20.8) 3.7 (0.3, 7.0) −13.3 (− 15.9, − 10.7) < 0.001
Intervention II 196 4.3 (3.4, 5.3) 8.5 (7.2, 9.8) 4.2 (2.6, 5.7) < 0.001
Intervention III 219 8.2 (6.7, 9.7) 10.6 (9.1, 12.1) 2.4 (0.9, 3.9) < 0.001
Intervention IV 190 10.4 (8.8, 12.0) 12.5 (10.8, 14.2) 2.1 (−0.7, 4.9) 0.396
Intervention I 255 Older than 90 days to 2 years 15.1 (11.0, 19.2) 4.3 (0.8, 7.7) −10.9 (−13.1, −8.6) < 0.001
Intervention II 196 4.6 (3.8, 5.5) 8.3 (7.4, 9.1) 3.6 (2.8, 4.4) < 0.001
Intervention III 219 7.9 (6.8, 9.0) 10.1 (8.9, 11.3) 2.2 (1.0, 3.4) < 0.001
Intervention IV 190 10.2 (8.5, 11.9) 11.7 (9.6, 13.8) 1.5 (−0.7, 3.7) 0.736
Intervention I 255 Older than 2 years 12.8 (9.2, 16.5) 6.8 (3.8, 9.7) −6.1 (− 8.5, −3.7) < 0.001
Intervention II 196 6.2 (4.8, 7.6) 7.0 (4.5, 9.5) 0.8 (− 3.8, 5.4) 1.000
Intervention III 219 7.5 (5.8, 9.3) 10.9 (9.5, 12.3) 3.4 (0.9, 5.9) < 0.001
Intervention IV 190 11.2 (9.3, 13.1) 9.6 (7.5, 11.6) −1.6 (−4.3, 1.0) 1.000
HEPTEM α (°)b Intervention I 265 90 days or less 77.0 (73.7, 79.7) 36.6 (31.2, 42.2) −40.4 (−50.4, −30.5) < 0.001
Intervention II 204 42.1 (37.8, 46.4) 74.9 (72.1, 77.4) 32.9 (23.2, 42.5) < 0.001
Intervention III 217 72.8 (69.8, 75.4) 63.9 (60.0, 67.4) −8.9 (−15.0, −2.8) < 0.001
Intervention IV 188 64.4 (57.6, 70.3) 70.2 (64.0, 75.2) 5.7 (0.3, 11.2) 0.038
Intervention I 265 Older than 90 days to 2 years 75.0 (71.4, 78.0) 49.5 (43.7, 55.1) −25.5 (−32.8, −18.3) < 0.001
Intervention II 204 54.0 (50.5, 57.3) 74.9 (72.4, 77.1) 20.9 (13.9, 28.0) < 0.001
Intervention III 217 72.4 (69.7, 74.8) 67.9 (64.7, 70.8) −4.5 (−8.2, −0.8) < 0.001
Intervention IV 188 67.8 (61.1, 73.3) 68.7 (61.6, 74.5) 0.9 (−1.2, 3.0) 1.000
Intervention I 265 Older than 2 years 73.4 (69.6, 76.7) 61.3 (55.1, 66.9) −12.1 (− 19.5, −4.8) < 0.001
Intervention II 204 57.4 (51.2, 63.1) 69.8 (57.0, 78.6) 12.4 (−3.3, 28.1) 1.000
Intervention III 217 68.6 (56.9, 77.1) 65.3 (61.9, 68.3) −3.4 (−9.0, 2.3) 1.000
Intervention IV 188 66.1 (58.5, 72.4) 69.8 (62.8, 75.4) 3.7 (−1.0, 8.4) 1.000
  1. aN was number of observations used for each model. All the models were controlled for age groups, whether each of the interventions was received, as well as interaction between age groups and before or after the intervention
  2. bGeneralized linear mixed model using beta distribution was applied to predict α (°), while generalized estimation equation was used for other outcomes. Estimates were predicted marginal means
  3. cp values were Bonferroni-adjusted for estimated mean changes before and after the intervention in each age group
  4. CI confidence interval, CT clotting time, MCF maximum clot firmness
  5. p values in bold represent statistical significance