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Table 1 Demographic characteristics

From: Outcomes of early versus delayed initiation of extracorporeal life support in cardiac surgery

Variable Entire cohort prior matching Propensity-matched cohort
Delayed
(n = 46)
Early
(n = 127)
P value Delayed
(n = 36)
Early
(n = 36)
P value
Age (year) 59.11 ± 15.81 63.81 ± 15.64 0.08 57.31 ± 16.90 61.17 ± 12.22 0.27
Gender (male) 24, 52.17% 71, 55.91% 0.66 19, 52.78% 24, 66.67% 0.23
Weight (kg) 72.22 ± 8.03 73.02 ± 8.21 0.57 71.92 ± 8.27 72.31 ± 8.31 0.84
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.09 ± 3.46 25.21 ± 3.61 0.85 24.89 ± 3.44 24.75 ± 4.13 0.88
NYHA class    0.81    0.94
 I and II (n,%) 4, 8.70% 13, 10.24%   3, 8.33% 4, 11.11%  
 III and IV (n,%) 42, 91.3% 114, 89.76%   33, 91.67% 32, 88.89%  
EuroSCORE 6.85 ± 1.03 7.64 ± 1.24 < 0.01 6.94 ± 1.94 7.11 ± 1.14 0.53
Previous Medical History
 Acute Myocardial infarction (n,%) 8, 17.39% 24, 18.90% 0.82 5, 13.89% 8, 22.22% 0.36
 Arrhythmia (n,%) 5, 19.87% 16, 12.60% 0.76 5, 13.89% 2, 5.56% 0.23
 Diabetes Mellitus (n,%) 15, 32.61% 44, 34.65% 0.80 11, 30.56% 10, 2.78% 0.79
 Chronic Renal Failure (n,%) 1, 2.17% 4, 3.15% 0.74 0 2, 5.56% 0.15
 Hyperlipidemia (n,%) 7, 15.22% 26, 20.47% 0.44 7, 19.44% 4, 11.11% 0.33
 Hypertension (n,%) 13, 28.26% 36, 28.35% 0.99 11, 30.56% 10, 2.78% 0.79
 Liver Disease (n,%) 1, 2.17% 0 0.11 1, 2.78% 0 0.31
 Smoking 16, 34.78% 42, 33.07% 0.83 13, 36.11% 11, 30.56% 0.62
 Excessive alcohol (n,%) 15, 32.61% 36, 28.35% 0.59 13, 36.11% 8, 22.22% 0.19
 Preoperative LVEF (%) 42(36–52) 43(38–52) 0.48 42(36–51) 45(40–52) 0.17
 Preoperative LVDd (mm) 62.10 ± 13.27 58.28 ± 12.89 0.21 61.12 ± 13.19 57.86 ± 12.88 0.29
 CPB time (minutes) 262(211–298) 277(237–316) 0.07 262(223–306) 264(220–320) 0.87
 ACC time (minutes) 229(194–300) 242(220–286) 0.14 227(191–289) 228(212–254) 0.73
 Cardiac re-operation (n,%) 1, 2.17% 6, 4.72% 0.45 0 0
Cardioplegic solution    0.50    0.41
 HTK (n,%) 10, 21.74% 34, 26.77%   7, 19.44% 10, 27.78%  
 CB (n,%) 36, 78.26% 93, 73.23%   29, 80.56% 26, 72.22%  
Intraoperative TEE
 LVEF (%) 43.02 ± 7.72 43.28 ± 8.12 0.85 44.42 ± 7.17 42.33 ± 7.91 0.25
 LVDd (mm) 58.59 ± 12.34 61.76 ± 10.70 0.12 57.19 ± 12.18 60.53 ± 12.73 0.26
Surgical Procedures    0.08    0.42
 On-Pump CABG (n,%) 7, 15.22% 10, 7.87%   4, 11.11% 4, 11.11%  
 Off-Pump CABG (n,%) 1, 2.17% 9, 7.09%   1, 2.78% 7, 19.44%  
 Valves (n,%) 16, 34.78% 21, 16.54%   12, 33.34% 10, 27.78%  
 CABG+ Valves (n,%) 9, 19.56% 42, 33.07%   8, 22.22% 3, 8.33%  
 Aortic operation (n,%) 13, 28.26% 45, 35.43%   11, 30.55% 12, 33.34%  
  1. NYHA New York Heart Association, CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, ACC Aortic cross clamp, TEE Trans-oesophageal echocardiography, CB Cold blood cardioplegic solution, HTK Histidine-Triptophan-ketoglutalate solution, Mean ± SD, Median (Interquartile Range), LVDd Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter