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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with different degree of hidden renal dysfunction

From: Preoperative hidden renal dysfunction add an age dependent risk of progressive chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery

  Total
(n = 1744)
eGFR ≥  90
(no renal dysfunction)
(n = 829)
60 ≤ eGFR < 90
(hidden renal dysfunction)
(n = 857)
eGFR < 60
(known renal dysfunction)
(n = 58)
Pre-operation
 Age 53.00 ± 14.00 48 ± 15 58 ± 12 a 61 ± 15
 Gender (male) 1003 (57.51%) 485 (58.50%) 483 (56.36%) 35 (60.34%)
 BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 ± 3.5 22.4 ± 3.6 23.1 ± 3.4 a 23.5 ± 3.1
 Hypertension (n, %) 540 (30.96%) 223 (26.90%) 290 (33.84%)b 27 (46.55%)
 DM (n, %) 200 (11.47%) 89 (10.74%) 100 (11.67%) 11 (18.97%)
 NYHA > II (n, %) 1055 (60.49%) 445 (53.68%) 571 (66.63%) 39 (67.24%)
 LVEF (%) 63.00 ± 6.00 68.00 ± 6.00 61.00 ± 5.00 a 60.00 ± 5.00
 BUN (mmol/L) 6.60 ± 2.20 5.90 ± 1.60 7.00 ± 2.20 ab 9.60 ± 3.40
 SCr (mg/dL) 0.87 ± 0.22 0.74 ± 0.12 0.96 ± 0.15 ab 1.09 ± 0.12
 Uric acid (μmol/L) 366.40 ± 114.30 334.10 ± 98.80 390.20 ± 112.50 ab 457.20 ± 126.70
 Proteinuria (n, %) 140 (8.03%) 65 (7.84%) 63 (7.35%)b 12 (20.69%)
 Urinalysis abnormal (n, %) 279 (16.00%) 132 (15.92%) 134 (15.64%) 13 (22.41%)
 Renal ultrasound abnormal (n, %) 32 (1.83%) 9 (1.09%) 17 (1.98%) b 6 (10.34%)
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 133.80 ± 19.60 134.30 ± 20.40 133.50 ± 18.60 130.40 ± 21.50
 Platelet (10 9/L) 181.00 ± 61.20 183.90 ± 64.40 178.10 ± 57.40 181.10 ± 68.10
Intra-operation
 Types of surgery (n, %)
  − Valve 903 (51.78%) 434 (52.35%) 445 (51.93%) 24 (41.38%)
  − CABG/OPCAB 309 (17.72%) 111 (13.39%) 185 (21.59%) 13 (22.41%)
  − Aneurysm 108 (6.19%) 57 (6.88%) 42 (4.90%) 9 (15.52%)
  − Combined 140 (8.03%) 58 (7.00%) 74 (8.63%) 8 (13.79%)
 CPB duration (min) 96.10 ± 40.90 94.40 ± 39.70 96.70 ± 41.20 b 112.70 ± 50.10
 Aortic clamping time (min) 47.40 ± 42.30 47.90 ± 43.40 46.90 ± 41.30 47.10 ± 39.30
 Intra-operative hypotension (n, %) 135 (7.7%) 58 (7.0%) 68 (7.9%) b 9 (15.5%)
Post-operation
 High dose of vasoactive agents (n, %) 271 (15.5%) 104 (12.5%) 153 (17.9%) 14 (24.1%)
 LCOS (n, %) 118 (6.8%) 51 (6.1%) 59 (6.9%) 8 (13.9%)
  1. Abbreviations: eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, NYHA New York Heart Association, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, BUN blood urea nitrogen, SCr serum creatinine, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, OPCAB off-pump coronary artery bypass, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, LCOS low cardiac output syndrome
  2. aCompared with group eGFR ≥90, P <  0.05; bCompared with group eGFR < 60, P <  0.05