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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study participants from 2002 to 2013

From: Heart valve operations associated with reduced risk of death from mitral valve disease but other operations associated with increased risk of death: a national population-based case–control study

  Case (n = 600) Control
Non-Matched (n = 25,364) P Matched (n = 1800) P
Gender
 Female 322 (53.67%) 15,508 (61.14%) 0.2051 966 (53.67%) 1.0000
 Male 278 (46.33%) 9256 (36.49%)   834 (46.33%)  
Age in 2008, Mean ± SD 62.37 ± 16.17 56.98 ± 19.26 <.0001 62.51 ± 16.13 0.9376
Low income
 Yes 349 (58.17%) 15,727 (62.01%) 0.5571 1022 (56.78%) 0.9208
 No 251 (41.83%) 9637 (37.99%)   778 (43.22%)  
Other operation
 Other CVD system operation 555 (92.5%) 3365 (13.27%) <.0001 341 (18.94%) <.0001
 Nervous system operation 24 (4.00%) 813 (3.21%) 0.0002 75 (4.17%) 0.5781
 Digestives system operation 208 (34.67%) 4382 (17.28%) <.0001 363 (20.17%) <.0001
 Breath system operation 118 (19.67%) 1070 (4.22%) <.0001 91 (5.06%) <.0001
 Urinary system operation 37 (6.17%) 1119 (4.41%) <.0001 91 (5.06%) 0.0041
 Hemodialysis 22 (3.67%) 455 (1.79%) <.0001 48 (2.67%) 0.2074
Comorbidity
 Hypertension 408 (68.00%) 14,430 (56.89%) 0.0513 1237 (68.72%) 0.8323
 Hyperlipidemia 221 (36.83%) 10,013 (39.48%) 0.6667 834 (46.33%) 0.3355
 Diabetes 198 (33.00%) 7498 (29.56%) 0.2915 649 (36.06%) 0.5501
 COPD 225 (37.5%) 8205 (32.35%) 0.2259 674 (37.44%) 0.9707
 Emphysema 7 (1.17%) 380 (1.50%) <.0001 34 (1.89%) <.0001
 Heart failure 413 (68.83%) 5496 (21.67%) <.0001 469 (26.06%) 0.0983
 Cardiac dysrhythmias 372 (62%) 12,586 (49.62%) 0.3405 903 (50.17%) 0.3915
 Anxiety 241 (40.17%) 14,800 (58.35%) 0.8703 1044 (58.00%) 0.8615
 CKD 69 (11.5%) 2255 (8.89%) <.0001 217 (12.06%) 0.5600
 Sleep disturbances 280 (46.67%) 14,570 (57.44%) 0.7280 1037 (57.61%) 0.7544
 Anemia 102 (17.0%) 4370 (17.23%) 0.7157 259 (14.39%) 0.1213
  1. Abbreviation: SD Standard deviation, CVD Cardiovascular disease, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD Chronic kidney disease