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Table 2 Etiology of recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair

From: Recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair for bileaflet lesions in the modern era

No.Age/sexMR lesionaRepair techniqueInterval from repair (years)Etiology of failureb
170/MA2–3 + P1–2 prolapseArtificial neochordae of A2–30.0 (7 days)A3 prolapse (failure of neochordae)
270/FA2 + P2–3 prolapseQuadrangular resection of P2–3, Artificial neochordae of A20.0 (8 days)AML tethering, PML motion↓
360/MA2 + P2-P3-PC prolapseArtificial neochordae of A2, Quadrangular resection of P2, Commissural plication of PC0.2A2 prolapse (failure of neochordae)
477/FA2 + P2 prolapseArtificial neochordae of A2 + P20.3P2 prolapse (failure of neochordae)
569/MA2 prolapse,
P1 gap
Artificial neochordae of A2, Leaflet approximation of P10.6AML + PML tethering
677/FA2 prolapse, PML tetheringArtificial neochordae of A2, Commissural plication of PC0.7A2–3 tethering
780/FA1 + A3 + P3 prolapse, MACArtificial neochordae of A1, Commissural plication of PC1.2P3 prolapse
870/FA2–3 prolapse, P2–3 gapArtificial chordae of A2–3, Commissural plication of PC, Leaflet approximation of P2–32.0A3 prolapse
969/MA1 prolapse,
P1 tethering
Triangular resection + Artificial neochordae of A1, Commissural plication of AC4.0A1 prolapse
1068/MA2–3 + PC prolapseArtificial neochordae of A2–3, Commissural plication of PC7.0Regurgitation from PC
  1. aBased on surgical assessments of the valve leaflets. bBased on postoperative transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed after mitral valve repair
  2. AC anterolateral commissure, AML anterior mitral leaflet, MAC mitral annular calcification, MR mitral regurgitation, PC posteromedial commissure, PML posterior mitral leaflet