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Table 1 Preoperative (A), intraoperative and postoperative (B) characteristics of the population

From: The influence of postoperative albumin levels on the outcome of cardiac surgery

AAll patients (n = 2818)Hospital Survivors
(n = 2659; 94.4%)
Non-survivors
(n = 159; 5.6%)
P
Preoperative data
 Age (years)64.5 ± 11.664.2 ± 11.669.7 ± 10< 0.001
 Sex (male)63.8% (1799)63.7% (1696)64.7%(103)0.86
 BMI (Kg·m−2)28.0 ± 4.327.9 ± 4.328.0 ± 4.60.89
 Albumin before surgery (g ·L−1)40.0 ± 3.540.1 ± 2.839.9 ± 1.50.85
 Subjective Global Assessment (class B)5.8% (163)5.9% (158)3.1% (5)0.25
 Hypertension62.7% (1768)62.1% (1650)74.2%(118)0.002
 Diabetes Mellitus24.8% (699)24.9% (662)33.3% (53)0.03
 Dyslipidemia50.5% (1423)50.4%(1339)52.8% (84)0.56
 Peripheral vascular disease8.8% (249)8.3% (220)18.2% (29)< 0.001
 Chronic renal insufficiency5.2% (146)4.6% (122)15.1%(24)< 0.001
 Renal failure (on Dialysis)0.8% (23)0.8% (20)1.9%(3)0.14
 Creatinine before surgery (μmol·l−1)96 ± 5994 ± 58119 ± 67< 0.001
 Previous stroke5.6% (158)5.5% (145)8.2% (13)0.15
 COPD12% (337)11.5%(307)18.9%(30)0.008
 Active smokers15.5% (437)15.3%(407)18.8%(30)0.58
 Previous atrial fibrillation23.8% (671)23.3%(620)32.8%(51)0.005
 Previous myocardial infarction15.5% (437)15.3% (407)18.9% (30)0.26
 Recent myocardial infarction11% (310)10.5% (278)20.1% (32)0.001
 On B-Blockers41.3% (1165)41.4% (1102)39.6% (63)0.68
 On statins41.2% (1160)41.3% (1097)39.6% (63)0.74
 On Aspirin44.5% (1184)44.5% (1184)43.4% (69)0.81
 On diuretics47.6% (1340)46.6% (1239)63.5% (101)0.001
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy31.2% (880)31% (826)33.9% (54)0.59
 Dilated cardiomyopathy20.4% (577)20.2% (537)25.1% (40)0.19
 LVEF (%)60 ± 1259 ± 1360 ± 120.25
 PAP (mmHg)46 ± 1645 ± 1549 ± 160.04
 Hemoglobin before surgery (g·dL−1)13.0 ± 1.713.0 ± 1.712.0 ± 1.90.001
 Platelet count before surgery (1·nl− 1)215 ± 68216 ± 68208 ± 750.24
 Emergent surgery5.1% (143)4.5% (120)14.5% (23)< 0.001
 Past cardiac surgery9.4% (266)9.2% (245)13.2% (21)0.09
 EuroSCORE5.9 ± 35.7 ± 2.88.6 ± 3.8< 0.001
 Parsonnet score11.4 ± 7.411.2 ± 7.215.4 ± 9.8< 0.001
BAll patients (n = 2818)Hospital
Survivors
(n = 2659; 94.4%)
Non-survivors
(n = 159; 5.6%)
P
Intraoperative data
 Isolated CABG32.2% (907)32.3% (859)30.2% (48)0.86
 Isolated valve surgery51.7% (1456)52% (1382)46.5% (74)0.65
 CABG + valve surgery6.9% (194)6.7% (178)10.1% (16)0.09
 Other cardiac surgery9.2% (261)9% (240)13.2% (21)0.06
 Number of bypass3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)0.85
 CPB time (min)112 ± 41111 ± 39140 ± 620.001
 ACC time (min)74 ± 3073 ± 2984 ± 370.001
Postoperative data
 APACHE II12.3 ± 4.611.8 ± 4.119 ± 6.8< 0.001
 APACHE III50 ± 18.348.2 ± 1678.1 ± 27.8< 0.001
 SAPS II24 ± 9.623.3 ± 8.438 ± 14.6< 0.001
 SAPS III40.0 ± 10.439.3 ± 9.651.8 ± 13.5< 0.001
 Ventilation time (hours)51 ± 12939 ± 99248 ± 309< 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission331 ± 98333 ± 97290 ± 112< 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 12 h after admission311 ± 89315 ± 87249 ± 98< 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 24 h after admission308 ± 76312 ± 73236 ± 92< 0.001
 Reintubation1.1% (31)1% (25)3.8% (6)0.01
 Tracheostomy1.3% (35)1% (26)5.7% (9)0.005
 Need of vasoactive drugs (hours)103 ± 14191 ± 116253 ± 271< 0.001
 LCOS41.5% (1170)38.8% (1034)85.5% (136)< 0.001
 PMI11.6% (327)10.2% (272)34.6% (55)< 0.001
 IABP support7.8% (222)6.7% (180)26.4% (42)< 0.001
 Atrial Fibrilation39.5% (1114)37.9% (1009)66% (105)< 0.001
 Albumin 24 h after surgery (g ·L−1)28 ± 4.828 ± 2.425 ± 3.5< 0.001
 AL peak after surgery (mmol·l−1)3.8 ± 1.83.6 ± 1.45.9 ± 4.3< 0.001
 Acute Renal Failure9.7% (272)6.5% (174)61.6% (98)< 0.001
 Need for RRT2.1% (58)0.8% (22)22.6% (36)< 0.001
 Haemorrhage-related reexploration3.4% (97)3% (81)10.1% (16)< 0.001
 Pericardial tamponade0.7% (19)0.6% (17)1.3% (2)0.29
 Drainage loss first 12 h (ml)392 ± 295386 ± 287492 ± 398< 0.001
 Re-exploration1.6% (47)1.1% (30)10.7% (17)< 0.001
 Need for blood products first 24 h (Units)1.2 ± 1.91.1 ± 1.63.2 ± 3.90.01
 Stroke1.4% (39)1.1% (28)6.9% (11)< 0.001
 Septicaemia6.6% (186)4.6% (122)40.2% (65)< 0.001
 Mean ICU stay (hours)125 ± 158114 ± 131301 ± 3140.003
 Mean hospital stay (days)25.0 ± 20.322.3 ± 18.336.4 ± 58.2< 0.001
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, NYHA New York Heart Association classification, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, PAP Pulmonary arterial pressure, EuroSCORE European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CPB Cardiopulmonary Bypass, ACC Aortic cross clamping, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, PaO2/FiO2 Arterial partial pressure of O2 and fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, LCOS Low Cardiac Output Syndrome, PMI Perioperative Myocardial Infarction, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, AL Arterial Lactate, RRT Renal Replacement Therapy. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, percentage or median and interquartile range