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Table 4 Preoperative (A), intraoperative and postoperative (B) variables of subgroups of patients with different albumin levels 24 h after cardiac surgery

From: The influence of postoperative albumin levels on the outcome of cardiac surgery

ANormal Levels (≥35 g ·L−1)
n = 162
5.8%
Low deficit
(30–34.9 g ·L− 1)
n = 924
32.8%
Mild deficit
(25–29.9 g ·L− 1)
n = 1249
44.3%
Severe deficit (< 25 g ·L− 1)
n = 483
17.1%
ANOVA
P value
Sex (male)75% (122)68% (634)61% (765)57% (278)0.001
Age (years)57 ± 14.163 ± 11.665.5 ± 11.267.7 ± 10< 0.001
Albumin before surgery (g ·L-1)41 ± 2.541 ± 2.839 ± 2.939 ± 2.20.78
Subjective Global Assessment (class B)6.1% (10)5.9% (55)58.8% (73)5.1% (25)0.89
Hypertension53.0% (86)60.4% (558)63.4% (792)68.7% (332)0.001
Dyslipidemia42.0% (68)47.6% (440)53.1% (663)52.2% (252)0.009
Diabetes Mellitus19.1% (31)24.3% (225)26.1% (327)27.1% (131)0.06
BMI (kg·m−2)27.6 ± 4.628.3 ± 4.227.9 ± 4.227.4 ± 4.30.90
Peripheral vascular disease3.7% (6)6.8% (63)10.2% (127)11% (53)0.001
Chronic renal insufficiency2.5% (4)2.9% (27)5.2% (65)10.4% (50)< 0.001
Renal Failure (on Dialysis)0.6% (1)0.4% (4)0.7% (9)1.9% (9)0.04
Creatinine before surgery (μmol·l−1)86 ± 3688 ± 3496 ± 61110 ± 840.001
Previous Stroke2.5% (4)5.4% (50)5.4% (68)7.5% (36)0.99
COPD8% (13)11.8% (109)12.4% (155)12.4% (60)0.43
Active smokers19.1% (31)15.9% (147)14.9% (187)14.9% (72)0.42
Previous Atrial Fibrillation25.9% (42)24% (222)23% (288)24.6% (119)0.59
Previous Myocardial Infarction14.2% (23)14.7% (136)16% (200)16.1% (78)0.79
Recent Myocardial Infarction4.9% (8)7.7% (71)11.8% (148)17.2% (83)0.001
On B-Blockers34.6% (56)41.2% (381)41.6% (520)43.1% (208)0.82
On statins30.2% (49)40.3% (372)43.3% (541)41% (198)0.01
On Aspirin28.4% (46)42.2% (390)47.6% (594)46.2% (223)0.001
On diuretics47.5% (77)45.1% (417)48.7% (608)49.3% (238)0.33
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy27.1% (44)31.6% (292)32.9% (412)27.3% (132)0.11
Dilated cardiomyopathy27.1% (44)23% (213)19.3% (242)16.1% (78)0.02
LVEF (%)60 (48–72)61 (47–75)60 (41–79)60 (43–77)0.34
PAP (mmHg)48 (37–59)32 (21–43)37 (21–53)35 (18–52)0.26
Hemoglobin before surgery (g·dL−1)13.5 ± 1.513.3 ± 1.612.9 ± 1.712.4 ± 1.80.001
Platelet count before surgery (1·nL− 1)203 ± 49213 ± 67215 ± 68224 ± 750.002
Past Cardiac surgery12.3% (20)9.4% (87)9.1% (114)9.3% (45)0.62
Emergent Surgery0.6% (1)0.9% (8)4.6% (58)15.7% (76)< 0.001
EuroSCORE5.2 ± 3.25.7 ± 2.86.2 ± 1.97.3 ± 3.20.14
Parsonnet score11.0 ± 6.211.1 ± 5.212.8 ± 3.713.4 ± 2.80.25
Mean Pre-ICU stay (days)1.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.41.0 ± 0.31.9 ± 2.10.02
BNormal Levels
(≥35 g ·L−1)
n = 162
5.8%
Low deficit
(30–34.9 g ·L− 1)
n = 924
32.8%
Mild deficit (25–29.9 g ·L− 1)
n = 1249
44.3%
Severe deficit (< 25 g ·L− 1)
n = 483
17.1%
ANOVA
P value
Intraoperative data
 Isolated CABG20.4% (33)32.3% (298)32.5% (406)35.2% (170)0.001
 Isolated valve surgery64.2% (104)56.5% (522)50% (624)42.7% (206)0.001
 CABG + valve surgery3.1% (5)4.9% (45)8.6% (107)7.7% (37)0.001
 Other cardiac surgery12.3% (20)6.4% (59)9% (112)14.5% (70)0.001
 Number of bypass2 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (2–4)0.85
 CPB time (min)95 ± 39105 ± 35114 ± 41127 ± 47< 0.001
 ACC time (min)65 ± 3069 ± 2775 ± 2981 ± 32< 0.001
Postoperative data
 APACHE II12.2 ± 2.211.9 ± 3.112.5 ± 5.812.9 ± 4.30.15
 APACHE III53.1 ± 17.949.2 ± 11.568.1 ± 20.675.9 ± 26.8< 0.001
 SAPS II24 ± 8.622.3 ± 8.225.8 ± 12.428.2 ± 14.60.01
 SAPS III39.5 ± 8.438.2 ± 8.543.2 ± 10.545.3 ± 12.6< 0.001
 Ventilation time (hours)6 (4–8)19.5 (11.5–30.5)18 (0–72)21 (0–242)< 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission323 ± 91330 ± 95336 ± 96319 ± 1100.21
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 12 h after admission338 ± 87319 ± 83310 ± 90290 ± 95< 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 24 h after admission328 ± 72318 ± 67306 ± 76284 ± 89< 0.001
 Reintubation00.5% (5)1.6% (20)1.2% (6)0.10
 Tracheostomy0.6% (1)0.6% (6)1.1% (14)2.8% (14)0.09
 AL peak after surgery (mmol·l−1)3.5 ± 1.33.7 ± 1.73.7 ± 1.74.2 ± 2.30.001
 Need of vasoactive drugs (hours)67 ± 9275 ± 112101 ± 139152 ± 173< 0.001
 LCOS17.3% (28)28.3% (262)44.9% (562)65.8% (318)< 0.001
 PMI8% (13)9.1% (84)11.8% (147)17.2% (83)< 0.001
 IABP support0.6% (1)4.3% (40)7.4% (93)18.2% (88)0.001
 Atrial Fibrillation33.3% (54)34.4% (318)40.3% (503)49.5% (239)0.001
 Acute Renal Failure3.1% (5)4.4% (41)9.7% (121)21.7% (105)< 0.001
 Need for RRT00.4% (4)1.8% (22)6.6% (32)< 0.001
 Haemorrhage-related reexploration01.3% (12)4.2% (52)6.8% (33)0.001
 Pericardial tamponade00.2% (2)0.9% (11)1.2% (6)0.07
 Drainage loss first 12 h (ml)307 ± 163355 ± 255399 ± 298472 ± 3690.33
 Re-exploration1.2% (2)0.5% (5)1.8% (23)3.2% (17)0.07
 Need for blood products first 24 h (Units)1 (0–2)1 (0–6)1 (0–3)1 (0–4)0.08
 Stroke0.6% (1)1% (9)1.8% (22)1.4% (7)0.38
 Septicaemia2.4% (4)3.1% (29)6.4% (81)14.9% (72)< 0.001
 Mean ICU stay (hours)158 ± 213190 ± 270274 ± 315327 ± 3770.001
 Mean hospital stay (days)18 ± 1121 ± 1426 ± 2133 ± 300.001
 In-hospital mortality1.9% (3)2.7% (25)5% (63)14.1% (68)< 0.001
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, NYHA New York Heart Association classification, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, PAP Pulmonary arterial pressure; EuroSCORE European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation, CABG coronary artery bypass graft; CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, ACC Aortic cross clamping, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, PaO2/FiO2 Arterial partial pressure of O2 and fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, LCOS Low Cardiac Output Syndrome, PMI Perioperative Myocardial Infarction, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, AL Arterial Lactate, RRT Renal Replacement Therapy. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, percentage or median and interquartile range