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Table 2 Patients characteristics in levosimendan and control groups

From: Preconditioning with levosimendan reduces postoperative low cardiac output in moderate-severe systolic dysfunction patients who will undergo elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a cost-effective strategy

 LEVOSIMENDAN (n = 13)CONTROL (n = 41)P
MEDICAL DEMOGRAPHICS
 Age (years)*68.6 ± 9.865.7 ± 12.20.43
 Male, n (%)12 (92.3)29 (70.7)0.11
 Female, n (%)1 (7.7)12 (29.3)
 Arterial hypertension, n (%)9 (69.2)25 (61)0.59
 Dyslipidemia, n (%)6 (46.2)25 (61)0.35
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)7 (53.8)19 (46.3)0.35
 Renal failure, n (%)2 (15.4)4 (9.8)0.57
 Previous myocardial infarction, n(%)4 (36.4)11 (32.4)0.81
 HLV3 (23.1)8 (19.5)0.27
 NYHA, n(%)I3 (23.1)16 (39)0.78
 II4 (30.8)10 (24.4)
 III4 (30.8)10 (24.4)
 IV2 (15.4)5 (12.2)
 Euroscore †7.7 ± 6.910.4 ± 8.80.33
 LVEF (fraction) †30 (28–37)39 (35–40)< 0.01
INTRAOPERATIVE
 Graft type n(%) Saphenous2 (15.4)6 (14.6)0.79
 IMA2 (15.4)10 (24.4)
 Both9 (69.2)25 (61)
 Aortic cross clamp time (min)†62 ± 1862 ± 440.98
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min)*104 ± 3596 ± 590.61
 Pump reentry, n(%)02 (4.9)0.42
MEDICAL-POSTOPERATIVE
 Postoperative NOAF, n (%)2 (15.3)9 (21.9)0.46
 Low cardiac output, n (%)2 (15.4)25 (61)< 0.01
 Cardiogenic shock, n(%)010 (24.4)< 0.05
 Posoperative myocardial infarction, n(%)01 (6.2)0.38
 Troponine I at 24 h, ng/mL3.7 ± 6.77.5 ± 10.90.26
 Troponine I máximum, ng/mL4.7 ± 5.816.9 ± 25.20,20
 Lactic acid at 24 h, mmol/L1.1 ± 0.44.1 ± 7.20.02
 Hours of Dobutamine †2 (0–24)23 (3–71)0.04
 Hours of Norepinephrine †0 (0–17)0 (0–42)0.33
 Prolonged mechanical ventilation, n(%)1 (7.7)9 (22)0.25
 Hours of mechanical ventilation†2 (2–5)7 (5–20)< 0.01
 Renal failure, n (%)1 (7.7)10 (24.4)0.19
 Hemodialysis, n (%)0 (0)3 (7.3)0.32
 Exitus, n (%)0 (0)5 (12.2)0.18
 ICU LOS (days) †2 (1–4)4 (3–6)0.03
 PO Ward stay (days) †6 (4–8)5 (4–9)0.78
  1. The results are expressed as cases and percentages -n (%) - either as *arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, or † median and 25–75 percentile, NOAF: new-onset atrial fibrillation, Prolonged mechanical ventilation: > 24 h. LVEF: left ventricle ejection fraction. HLV: hypertrophy of left ventricle. NYHA: New York Heart Association. IMA: internal mammary artery. ICU LOS: Intensive Care Unit Length of stay; PO: Posoperative