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Table 1 Preoperative demographics and patient characteristics

From: Minimally invasive beating heart technique for mitral valve surgery in patients with previous sternotomy and giant left ventricle

FeaturesMinimally invasive beating heart (n = 30)Median resternotomy arrested heart (n = 50)P Value
Demographics
 Age(years)60.7 ± 6.860.2 ± 7.60.30
 Male sex18 (60.0%)33 (66.0%)0.59
 Smoker19 (63.3%)34 (68.0%)0.67
 BSA(m2)1.74 ± 0.081.74 ± 0.070.61
 BMI(kg/ m2)23.6 ± 0.924.0 ± 1.00.90
Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure6 (20.0%)12 (24.0%)0.68
 Hypertension13 (43.3%)25 (50.0%)0.56
 COPD2 (6.7%)7 (14.0%)0.52
 Diabetes mellitus2 (6.7%)6 (12.0%)0.70
 Pulmonary hypertension6 (20.0%)15 (30.0%)0.33
 Atrial fibrillation13 (43.3%)21 (42.0%)0.91
 Cerebrovascular disease1 (3.3%)3 (6.0%)1.0
Previous cardiac surgeries  0.60
 MVP8 (26.7%)9 (18.0%) 
 MVR8 (26.7%)18 (36.0%) 
 MVR + TVP4 (13.3%)6 (12.0%) 
 MVP + TVP4 (13.3%)3 (6.0%) 
 MVR + AVR4 (13.3%)10 (20.0%) 
 CABG2 (6.7%)4 (8.0%) 
NYHA functional class  0.64
 I4 (13.3%)3 (6.0%) 
 II6 (20.0%)15 (30.0%) 
 III14 (46.7%)18 (36.0%) 
 IV6 (20.0%)14 (28.0%) 
Logistic EuroSCORE15.3% ± 5.4%14.8% ± 5.4%0.61
Predominant valve lesion  0.95
 Perivalvular leakage6 (20.0%)9 (18.0%) 
 Prosthesis dysfunction2 (6.7%)6 (12.0%) 
 Rheumatic4 (13.3%)6 (12.0%) 
 Endocarditis6 (20.0%)11 (22.0%) 
 Perivalvular hyperplasia8 (26.7%)9 (18.0%) 
 Bioprosthetic valve decay4 (13.3%)9 (18.0%) 
Echocardiography
 LVEF0.43 ± 0.080.45 ± 0.090.27
 LVEDD(mm)75.8 ± 3.975.3 ± 3.60.52
 LVESD(mm)50.0 ± 5.349.2 ± 4.80.70
 LVFS0.31 ± 0.040.32 ± 0.040.81
Cardiothoracic Ratio0.72 ± 0.050.71 ± 0.050.70
Moderate or greater TR8 (26.7%)14 (28.0%)0.90
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as means ± standard deviation
  2. Acronyms: BSA Body surface area, BMI Body mass index, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, MVP Mitral valvuloplasty, MVR Mitral valve replacement, TVP Tricuspid valvuloplasty, AVR Aortic valve replacement, CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting, NYHA New York Heart Association, LVEDD Left ventricular end diastolic diameter, LVESD Left ventricular end systolic diameter, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LVFS Left ventricular fraction shortening, TR Tricuspid regurgitation