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Table 2 Intraoperative patient characteristics

From: Minimally invasive beating heart technique for mitral valve surgery in patients with previous sternotomy and giant left ventricle

FeaturesMinimally invasive beating heart (n = 30)Median resternotomy arrested heart (n = 50)P Value
Operation time(hours)3.75 ± 0.454.17 ± 0.620.002
Cross-clamp time(minutes) 86.3 ± 8.06 
CPB time(minutes)130.2 ± 19.3165.2 ± 27.6< 0.001
Conversion to sternotomy1 (3.3%)  
Re-exploration for bleeding1 (3.3%)4 (8.0%)0.72
Intraoperative IABP1 (3.3%)4 (8.0%)0.72
Blood loss(ml)515 ± 188697 ± 222< 0.001
Temperature during CPB(°C)32.1 ± 0.4629.0 ± 1.47< 0.001
Arterial cannulation  < 0.001
 Ascending aorta1 (3.3%)44 (88.0%) 
 Femoral artery29 (96.7%)6 (12.0%) 
Venous cannulation
 Bicaval1 (3.3%)44 (88.0%)< 0.001
 Femoral vein alone6 (20.0%)6 (12.0%) 
 Jugulo-femoral23 (76.7%)0% 
Type of MV operation  0.93
 MVR26 (86.7%)43 (86.0%) 
 MVP4 (13.3%)7 (14.0%) 
TVP8 (100%)14 (100%)1.0
Radiofrequency ablation7 (53.8%)15 (71.4%)0.50
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Bold values represent P values are considered to be statistically significant at <0.05
  2. Acronyms: CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, IABP Intra-aortic balloon pump, MVP Mitral valvuloplasty, MVR Mitral valve replacement, TVP Tricuspid valvuloplasty, MV Mitral valve