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Table 2 Characteristics of preterm neonates of the PDA ligation and Non-ligation groups

From: Surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates weighing less than 1500g: a 9-year single center experience

VariablesPDA ligation
(n = 134)
Non-ligation
(n = 99)
p value
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, years32.58 ± 4.3033.29 ± 4.100.205
 Mother’s education level  0.946
  High, n (%)9 (6.7)6 (6.1) 
  Intermediate, n (%)88 (65.7)67 (67.7) 
  Low, n (%)37 (27.6)26 (26.3) 
 GDM10 (7.5)10 (10.1)0.488
 PIH9 (6.7)16 (16.2)0.031
 PPROM56 (41.8)42 (42.4)>  0.999
 Histologic chorioamnionitis104 (77.6)63 (63.6)0.027
Neonate characteristics
 Gestational age, weeks26.27 ± 2.2827.37 ± 1.90<  0.001
 Birth weight, grams882.05 ± 226.611053.23 ± 244.76<  0.001
 Length33.69 ± 4.5935.96 ± 3.36<  0.001
 Head circumference24.60 ± 3.1025.58 ± 2.370.010
 Cesarean section98 (73.1)81 (81.8)0.157
 Male sex69 (51.5)41 (41.8)0.183
 Apgar score at 1 min2.10 ± 1.302.73 ± 1.33<  0.001
 pgar score at 5 min4.58 ± 1.675.40 ± 1.55<  0.001
 Antenatal corticosteroids92 (68.7)73 (73.7)0.467
 Postnatal corticosteroids57 (42.5)31 (31.3)0.101
 Age at PDA closure, days15.57 ± 8.948.10 ± 2.71<  0.001
 Body weight at surgical ligation911.87 ± 270.16
 IVH50 (37.3)43 (43.4)0.417
 IVH grade II8 (6)3 (3)0.241
 IVH grade ≥ III21 (15.7)17 (17.2)0.858
 PVL10 (7.5)9 (9.1)0.809
 Culture-proven sepsis83 (61.9)55 (55.6)0.347
 NEC12 (9.0)10 (10.1)0.823
 NEC stage ≥ III41 (30.8)22 (22.2)0.180
 BPD74 (55.6)44 (44.9)0.112
 ROP80 (60.2)54 (55.1)0.501
 Days on mechanical ventilator30.62 ± 18.6316.20 ± 14.55<  0.001
 Days of oxygen therapy68.70 ± 52.0149.41 ± 28.200.001
 TPN days44.44 ± 25.6436.59 ± 21.210.014
 Hospital days96.00 ± 40.4479.89 ± 28.560.001
 PDA size2.13 ± 0.841.68 ± 0.920.001
 PDA ductal diameter > 2.0 mm70 (52.2)22 (22.2)<  0.001
 Deaths1 (0.7)2 (2)0.576
  1. PDA patent ductus arteriosus, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, PPROM preterm premature rupture of membranes, IVH intraventricular hemorrhage, PVL periventricular leukomalacia, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis, BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ROP retinopathy of prematurity, TPN total parenteral nutrition
  2. Data are the mean ± SD or number (%)