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Table 3 Characteristics of preterm neonates of the early ligation and late ligation groups

From: Surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates weighing less than 1500g: a 9-year single center experience

VariablesEarly ligation
(n = 49)
Late ligation
(n = 85)
p value
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, years33.22 ± 5.1632.21 ± 3.710.205
 Mother’s education level  0.835
  High, n (%)3 (6.1)6 (7.1) 
  Intermediate, n (%)31 (63.3)57 (67.1) 
  Low, n (%)15 (30.6)22 (25.9) 
 GDM2 (4.1)8 (9.4)0.325
 PIH5 (10.2)4 (4.7)0.287
 PPROM15 (30.6)41 (48.2)0.068
 Histologic chorioamnionitis42 (85.7)62 (72.9)0.131
Neonate characteristics
 Gestational age, weeks26.67 ± 2.5226.04 ± 2.110.123
 Birth weight, grams878.78 ± 216.77883.94 ± 233.340.899
 Length33.10 ± 3.0534.03 ± 5.270.259
 Head circumference24.48 ± 2.3024.68 ± 3.490.719
 Cesarean section41 (83.7)57 (67.1)0.044
 Male sex24 (49)41 (48.2)>  0.999
 Apgar score at 1 min2.08 ± 1.272.11 ± 1.330.918
 Apgar score at 5 min4.76 ± 1.584.48 ± 1.720.367
 Antenatal corticosteroids34 (69.4)58 (68.2)>  0.999
 Postnatal corticosteroids17 (34.7)40 (47.1)0.205
 Age at PDA closure, days8.18 ± 2.1419.44 ± 8.82<  0.001
 Body weight at surgical ligation847.96 ± 201.73948.71 ± 297.580.037
 IVH18 (36.7)32 (37.6)>  0.999
 IVH grade II4 (8.2)4 (4.7)0.240
 IVH grade ≥ III4 (8.2)17 (20.2)0.086
 PVL3 (6.1)7 (8.2)0.746
 Culture-proven sepsis24 (49)59 (69.4)0.026
 NEC18 (36.7)24 (28.2)0.337
 NEC stage ≥ III2 (4.1)15 (17.6)0.030
 BPD25 (52.1)49 (57.6)0.588
 ROP32 (66.7)48 (56.5)0.273
 Pneumothorax before ligation2 (4.1)2 (2.4)0.623
 Pulmonary hemorrhage before ligation3 (6.1)8 (9.4)0.746
 GI hemorrhage before ligation1 (2.0)7 (8.2)0.257
 Hypotension before ligation11 (22.4)21 (24.7)0.836
 Hypotension after ligation2 (4.1)3 (3.5)>  0.999
 Days on mechanical ventilator26.38 ± 15.3133.02 ± 19.950.048
 Days of oxygen therapy59.88 ± 33.8874.51 ± 56.890.107
 TPN days40.73 ± 21.4547.41 ± 28.360.156
 Hospital days94.53 ± 38.8695.88 ± 41.520.853
 PDA size2.06 ± 0.672.16 ± 0.920.481
 PDA ductal diameter > 2.0 mm25 (51.0)45 (52.9)0.859
 Deaths0 (0)1 (1.2)>  0.999
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, PPROM preterm premature rupture of membranes, IVH intraventricular hemorrhage, PVL periventricular leukomalacia, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis, BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ROP retinopathy of prematurity, GI gastrointestinal, TPN total parenteral nutrition, PDA patent ductus arteriosus
  2. Data are the mean ± SD or number (%)