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Table 1 Characteristics of the Overall Cohort

From: Risk factors analysis of acute kidney injury following open thoracic aortic surgery in the patients with or without acute aortic syndrome: a retrospective study

  No AKI AKI P1 Value* P2 Value#
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Patient population (n) 169 153 49 28   
Demographic data
 Age (y) 52.0 (18.0) 54.0 (16.5) 50.0 (13.0) 41.5 (17.5) 0.9 0.004
 Sex, male (n) 112 (66.3%) 116 (75.8%) 34 (69.4%) 21 (75.0%) 0.08 0.3
 Height (cm) 170.0 (13.0) 170.0 (8.5) 170.0 (14.0) 169.0 (10.0) 0.7 1.0
 Weight (kg) 70.0 (16.0) 72.0 (18.0) 74.0 (24.0) 75.0 (20.0) 0.002 0.02
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.6 (5.1) 25.7 (5.8) 25.2 (4.9) 27.4 (5.8) 0.003 0.009
Medical history
 Diabetes (n) 4 (2.4%) 4 (2.6%) 3 (6.1%) 1 (3.6%) 0.5 0.6
 Hypertension (n) 74 (43.8%) 85 (55.6%) 34 (69.4%) 23 (82.1%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n) 4 (2.4%) 6 (3.9%) 1 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.7 0.6
 Previous myocardial infarction (n) 1 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.2 0.7
 Peripheral vascular disease (n) 13 (7.7%) 11 (7.2%) 5 (10.2%) 1 (3.6%) 0.9 0.8
 Smoking (n) 57 (33.7%) 59 (38.6%) 19 (38.8%) 12 (42.9%) 0.3 0.7
Preoperative laboratory tests
 Platelet (109/L) 197.0 (71.0) 186.5 (71.8) 199.0 (65.5) 166.5 (68.3) 0.006 0.01
 Lymphocyte (109/L) 1.63 (0.74) 1.58 (0.90) 1.18 (0.72) 1.48 (0.90) 0.004 0.001
 Monocyte (109/L) 0.44 (0.30) 0.51 (0.40) 0.79 (0.78) 0.91 (0.70) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Neutrophil (109/L) 4.22 (2.95) 4.86 (4.30) 7.51 (5.64) 10.1 (5.3) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia (n) 55 (34.4%) 44 (31.0%) 7 (14.9%) 10 (43.5%) 0.2 0.04
 Retinol binding protein (mg/L) 35.7 (16.2) 37.8 (18.7) 26.4 (24.7) 37.3 (22.5) 0.7 0.007
Urinary protein
 +/− 17 (11.6%) 25 (18.8%) 10 (23.8%) 4 (20.0%) 0.05 0.2
 + 14 (9.5%) 20 (15.0%) 11 (26.2%) 8 (40.0%) 0.01 0.005
 ++ 1 (0.7%) 2 (1.5%) 2 (4.8%) 1 (5.0%) 0.2 0.3
 INR 1.04 (0.12) 1.04 (0.1) 1.09 (0.15) 1.10 (0.2) 0.05 0.02
Preoperative renal function
 Preoperative SCr (μmol/L) 70.4 (21.79) 73.6 (23.1) 66.0 (26.3) 76.0 (45.7) 0.3 0.07
  > 106 (n) 11 (6.5%) 13 (8.5%) 4 (8.2%) 8 (28.6%) 0.1 0.002
 eGFR(mL/min/1.73 m2) 99.8 (22.0) 97.2 (21.2) 103.4 (18.2) 94.4 (39.5) 0.2 0.08
Preoperative cardiovascular status
 Marfan syndrome (n) 14 (8.3%) 3 (2.0%) 1 (2.0%) 1 (3.6%) 0.005 0.04
 Aortic dissection (n) 56 (33.1%) 71 (46.4%) 36 (73.5%) 24 (85.7%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Stanford type-A aortic dissection (n) 53 (31.4%) 71 (46.4%) 34 (69.4%) 24 (85.7%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Intraoperative blood product use
 Erythrocytes (u) 2.0 (2.0) 4.0 (3.9) 4.0 (6.0) 4.0 (4.5) 0.001 < 0.001
 Fresh frozen plasma (ml) 400.0 (200.0) 400.0 (150.0) 400.0 (375.0) 600.0 (500.0) 0.06 0.002
 Platelets (u) 1.0 (0.0) 1.0 (1.0) 1.0 (1.0) 2.0 (1.0) 0.002 < 0.001
Surgical details
 Involving the aortic arch (n) 79 (46.7%) 97 (63.4%) 38 (77.6%) 26 (92.9%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Involving the descending aorta (n) 43 (25.4%) 60 (39.2%) 33 (67.3%) 24 (85.7%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 CPB duration(min) 133.0 (75.5) 165.0 (79.0) 201.0 (67.5) 220.0 (52.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
 DHCA or MHCA (n) 58 (34.3%) 76 (49.7%) 34 (69.4%) 25 (89.3%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Aortic cross-clamp time (min) 86.0 (27.0) 90.0 (31.0) 96.0 (32.0) 113.0 (32.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Operation time (h) 6.0 (2.0) 7.0 (2.0) 8.5 (2.0) 9.0 (2.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
Combined surgery
 Valvular surgery (n) 94 (55.6%) 67 (43.8%) 10 (20.4%) 3 (10.7%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Outcomes
 Renal replacement therapy (n) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 12 (42.9%) 0.003 < 0.001
 Length of ICU stay (day) 3.0 (2.0) 4.0 (2.5) 5.0 (4.0) 10.5 (11.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
  > 7 d (n) 19 (11.2%) 20 (13.1%) 17 (34.7%) 23 (82.1%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Intubation time (h) 15.0 (9.0) 17.0 (27.5) 38.0 (72.5) 136.0 (110.3) < 0.001 < 0.001
  > 5 d (n) 4 (2.4%) 5 (3.3%) 6 (12.2%) 17 (60.7%) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Stroke (n) 0 (0.0%) 4 (2.6%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (7.1%) 0.04 0.01
 Redo surgery (n) 4 (2.4%) 6 (3.9%) 6 (12.2%) 6 (21.4%) 0.02 < 0.001
 In-hospital mortality (n) 2 (1.2%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (2.1%) 8 (28.6%) 0.07 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, INR International Normalized Ratio, SCr Serum Creatinine, eGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, CPB Cardiopulmonary Bypass, DHCA Deep Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest, MHCA Median Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest
  2. NOTE. The categorical variables in the table are presented by the number of cases (with percentage) and the continuous variables are expressed by the median (with interquartile range) or mean (with standard deviation).
  3. *P1 Value: Compare the patients without AKI and all patients with AKI. P1 values* were the results of unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.
  4. #P2 Value: Compare patients within four groups (without AKI and patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI). P2 values# were the results of one-way analysis of variance or KruskalWallis test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables